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Aśvaghoṣa wrote Buddha-carita in 28 cantos. We know this from a 28-chapter Chinese translation completed around 420 CE by the Chinese monk Baoyun (376–449),1 and from a 28-chapter Tibetan translation probably done between 1260 and 1280 CE2.

All that remains in Sanskrit, however, are four Nepalese manuscripts, all of which end abruptly in the middle of Canto 14, along with some recently discovered Central Asian fragments which partially cover a total of 64 verses in Cantos 2, 3, 13, and 16.

Three of the four Nepalese manuscripts were copies of a transcript by Amṛtananda, the Regency pandit in the days of Brian Houghton Hodgson, British resident to the Court of Nepal from 1833 to 1840. EB Cowell based his ground-breaking translation of 1895 (the Editio Princeps) upon these three manuscripts.

In 1909 Hari Prasad Shastri related in the JASB (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal) the discovery of a much older manuscript, now retained in the Kathmandu library, which was acquired by the Nepal Durbar (court) and sent over to England in 1924 to be copied.

EH Johnston cites this old Nepalese manuscript (which EHJ calls A and dates to within 50 years of 1300 CE) as the chief authority for his Sanskrit text of Buddhacarita, published in 1934. EHJ's paleographic and textual studies left him in no doubt that the old Nepalese manuscript was the original source for Amṛtananda's transcript and the three copies thereof, which “repeat A's minor errors and are almost invariably faulty where A is corrupt or difficult to read.”

The old Nepalese manuscript originally consisted of 55 palm leaves, which reproduced only the first 13 chapters and 31 verses of the original 28 chapters of Buddha-carita. Of those 55 palm leaves, moreoever, leaves number one and three (covering verses 1.1 to 1.8b and 1.24d to 1.40c) had gone missing before Amṛtananda made his copies, while leaves number seven and eight (covering verses 2.1 to 2.35) were lost after that time.

Amṛtananda evidently responded to the missing verses in Canto 1 by making up his own verses, which bear no relation to the Tibetan and Chinese translations. So EHJ for the missing verses in Canto 1 discarded Amṛtananda's Sanskrit text and indicated gaps in the old Nepalese manuscript with asterisks ( * * *). When he came to publish his English translation, EHJ had a go at reconstructing some verses, notably the opening verse, working back from the Tibetan translation. In the text which follows, all EHJ's conjectures, including these reconstructed verses, are presented in red font.

For the first 35 verses in Canto 2, contained in the leaves (number seven and eight) which went missing from the old Nepalese manuscript after Amṛtananda had copied them, EHJ relied on Cowell's Sanskrit text.

Subsequent to the publication of EHJ's Buddha-carita translation in 1935, six fragments of Buddha-carita manuscripts were discovered in Central Asia, as documented by Richard Salomon,3 further to the work of the German scholars Friedrich Weller4 and Jens-Ewe Hartmann.5 These Central Asian fragments cover seven verses in Canto 2 (2.48a to 2.54d), 13 verses in Canto 3 (3.16b to 3.28a), 27 verses in Canto 13 (13.28 to 13.29; 13.58b to 13.59; 13.66b to 13.68; 13.70 to 13.72; 13.66d to 14.1a), and 17 verses in Canto 16 (16.20d to 16.36d).

I have indicated by the use of grey highlighting where the extant parts of these Central Asian fragments correspond to EHJ's text based on the old Nepalese manuscript. Where the Central Asian manuscripts differ from the Nepalese manuscripts, I have indicated this using green highlighting. In the rare instances where I have seen fit to amend EHJ's text based on the more recently discovered fragments, I have indicated this by the use of gold highlighting.


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

aikṣvāka ikṣvāku-sama-prabhāvaḥ śākyeṣv aśakyeṣu viśuddha-vṛttaḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

priyaḥ śarac-candra iva prajābhyaḥ śuddhodano nāma babhūva rājā || 1.1


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦ [?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā[?]6)

tasyendra-kalpasya babhūva patnī * * * * * * * * * * * |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

padmeva lakṣmīḥ pṛthivīva dhīrā māyeti nāmnānupameva māyā || 1.2


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

tataś-ca vidyeva samādhi-yuktā garbhaṁ7 dadhe pāpa-vivarjitā sā || 1.3


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * na tan-nimittaṁ samavāpa tāpam || 1.4


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

sā tasya deva-pratimasya devī garbheṇa vaṁśa-śriyam udvahantī |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * vīta-śrama-śoka-māyā * * * * * * * * * * * ] || 1.5



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

sā lumbinīṁ nāma vanānta-bhūmiṁ citra-drumāṁ caitrarathābhirāmām |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ] || 1.6



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

āryāśayāṁ tāṁ * * * * * * vijñāya kautūhala-harṣa-pūrṇaḥ

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

śivāt purād bhūmi-patir jagāma tat-prītaye nāpi vihāra-hetoḥ || 1.7



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Vāṇī)

tasmin-vane śrīmati rāja-patnī prasūti-kālaṁ samavekṣa8māṇā |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

śayyāṁ vitānopahitāṁ prapede nārī-sahasrair-abhinandyamānā || 1.8


⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Kīrti)

tataḥ prasannaś-ca babhūva puṣyas-tasyāś-ca devyā vrata-saṁskṛtāyāḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

pārśvāt-suto loka-hitāya jajñe nirvedanaṁ caiva nirāmayaṁ ca || 1.9


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Bālā)

ūror-yathaurvasya9 pṛthoś-ca hastān-māndhātur-indra-pratimasya mūrdhnaḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

kakṣīvataś-caiva bhujāṁsa-deśāt-tathāvidhaṁ tasya babhūva janma || 1.10


⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Mālā)

krameṇa garbhād-abhiniḥstaḥ san10 babhau cyutaḥ khād-iva yony-ajātaḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

kalpeṣv-anekeṣu ca11 bhāvitātmā yaḥ saṁprajānan suṣuve na mūḍhaḥ || 1.11


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Rāmā)

dīptyā ca dhairyeṇa ca yo12 rarāja bālo ravir-bhūmim-ivāvatīrṇaḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

tathātidīpto 'pi nirīkṣyamāṇo jahāra cakṣūṁṣi yathā śaśāṅkaḥ || 1.12


⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Haṁsī)

sa hi sva-gātra-prabhayojjvalantyā13 dīpa-prabhāṁ bhāskaravan-mumoṣa |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

mahārha-jāmbūnada-cāru-varṇo vidyotayām-āsa diśaś-ca sarvāḥ || 1.13


⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Haṁsī)

anākulāny-ubja14-samudgatāni niṣpeṣavad-vyāyata15-vikramāṇi |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

tathaiva dhīrāṇi padāni sapta saptarṣi-tārā-sa-dśo jagāma || 1.14


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

bodhāya jāto 'smi jagadd-hitārtham-antyā bhav-otpattir-iyaṁ mameti |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

catur-diśaṁ siṁha-gatir-vilokya vāṇīṁ ca bhavyārtha-karīm uvāca || 1.15


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Rāmā)

khāt-prasrute candra-marīci-śubhre dve vāri-dhāre śiśiroṣṇa-vīrye |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

śarīra-saṁsparśa-sukhāntarāya16 nipetatur-mūrdhani tasya saumye || 1.16


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

śrīmad-vitāne kanakojjvalāṅge vaiḍūrya-pāde śayane śayānam |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

yad17-gauravāt kāñcana-padma-hastā yakṣādhipāḥ saṁparivārya tasthuḥ || 1.17


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * ś-ca divaukasaḥ18 khe yasya prabhāvāt-praṇataiḥ śirobhiḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

ādhārayan19 pāṇḍaram-ātapa-traṁ bodhāya jepuḥ paramāśiṣaś-ca || 1.18


⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Haṁsī)

mahoragā dharma-viśeṣa-tarṣād-buddheṣv-atīteṣu ktādhikārāḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

yam-avyajan bhakti-viśiṣṭa-netrā mandāra-puṣpaiḥ samavākiraṁś-ca || 1.19


⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Kīrti)

tathāgatotpāda-guṇena tuṣṭāḥ śuddhādhivāsāś20-ca viśuddha-sattvāḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

devā nanandur-vigate 'pi rāge magnasya duḥkhe jagato hitāya21 || 1.20


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Rāmā)

yasya prasūtau22 giri-rāja-kīlā vātāhatā naur-iva bhūś-cacāla |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

sa-candanā cotpala-padma-garbhā papāta vṣṭir-gaganād-anabhrāt || 1.21


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

vātā vavuḥ sparśa-sukhā mano-jñā divyāni vāsāṁsy-avapātayantaḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

sūrya23 sa evābhyadhikaṁ cakāśe jajvāla saumyārcir-anīrito 'gniḥ || 1.22


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

prāg-uttare cāvasatha-pradeśe kūpaḥ svayaṁ prādur-abhūt-sitāmbuḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

antaḥ-purāṇy-āgata-vismayāni yasmin kriyās-tīrtha iva pracakruḥ || 1.23


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

dharmārthibhir-bhūta24-gaṇaiś-ca divyais-tad-darśanārthaṁ vanam āpupūre 25 |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

kautūhalenaiva ca pāda-pe26bhyaḥ puṣpāny akāle 'pi * * * * *27 || 1.24


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * ayatnato * * * * * * * || 1.25


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

diśaḥ praseduḥ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.26


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

jagad-vimokṣāya guru-prasūtau * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.27


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.28


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.29


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.30


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.31


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.32


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.33


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.34


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.35


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.36


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.37


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.38


[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * || 1.39



[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |

[?]−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

* * * * * * * * * * * nidarśanāny atra28 ca no nibodha || 1.40


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

yad-rāja-śāstraṁ bhṛgur-aṅgirā vā29 na cakratur-vaṁśa-karāv-ṛṣī tau |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

tayoḥ sutau saumya sasarjatus-tat-kālena śukraś-ca bṛhas-patiś-ca || 1.41



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Bālā)

sārasvataś30-cāpi jagāda naṣṭaṁ vedaṁ31 punar-yaṁ dadṛśur-na pūrve |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

vyāsas-tathainaṁ bahudhā cakāra na yaṁ vasiṣṭhaḥ32 kṛtavān-aśaktiḥ33 || 1.42


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

vālmīkir-ādau-ca sasarja padyaṁ jagrantha yan-na cyavano maharṣiḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

cikitsitaṁ yac-ca cakāra nātri34 paścāt-tad-ātreya ṛṣir-jagāda || 1.43


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

yac-ca dvijatvaṁ kuśiko na lebhe tad-gādhinaḥ sūnur-avāpa rājan35 |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

velāṁ samudre sagaraś-ca dadhre nekṣvākavo yāṁ prathamaṁ babandhuḥ || 1.44


−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

ācāryakaṁ yoga-vidhau dvijānām-aprāptam-anyair-janako jagāma |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

khyātāni karmāṇi ca yāni śaureḥ36 śūrādayas-teṣv-abalā babhūvuḥ || 1.45



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Bālā)

tasmāt-pramāṇaṁ na vayo na vaṁśaḥ37 kaścit-kvacic-chraiṣṭhyam-upaiti38 loke |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

rājñām-ṛṣīṇāṁ ca hi tāni tāni kṛtāni putrair-akṛtāni pūrvaiḥ || 1.46



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Bālā)

evaṁ nṛpaḥ pratyayitair39-dvijais-tair-āśvāsitaś-cāpy-abhinanditaś-ca |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

śaṅkām40-aniṣṭāṁ vijahau manastaḥ praharṣam-evādhikam-āruroha || 1.47



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

prītaśca tebhyo dvija-sattamebhyaḥ satkāra-pūrvaṁ pradadau dhanāni |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

bhūyād-ayaṁ bhūmi-patir-yathokto41 yāyāj-jarām-etya vanāni ceti || 1.48



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Kīrti)

atho nimittaiś-ca tapo-balāc-ca taj-janma42 janmānta-karasya buddhvā |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

śākyeśvarasyālayam-ājagāma saddharma-tarṣād-asito maharṣiḥ || 1.49



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Bālā)

taṁ brahmavid-brahmavidāṁ43 jvalantaṁ brāhmyā śriyā caiva tapaḥ-śriyā ca |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

rājño gurur-gaurava-satkriyābhyāṁ44 praveśayām-āsa narendra-sadma || 1.50



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Upendravajrā)

sa pārthivāntaḥ-pura-saṁnikarṣaṁ kumāra-janmāgata-harṣa-vegaḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

viveśa dhīro vana-saṁjñayaiva45 tapaḥ-prakarṣāc-ca jarāśrayāc-ca || 1.51


⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Ṛddhi)

tato nṛpas-taṁ munim-āsana-sthaṁ pādyārghya-pūrvaṁ pratipūjya samyak |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

nimantrayām-āsa yathopacāraṁ purā vasiṣṭhaṁ46 sa ivantidevaḥ || 1.52



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

dhanyo 'smy-anugrāhyam-idaṁ kulaṁ me yan-māṁ didṛkṣur-bhagavān-upetaḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

ājñāpyatāṁ kiṁ karavāṇi saumya śiṣyo 'smi viśrambhitum-arhasīti || 1.53



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

evaṁ nṛpeopamantritaḥ47 san-sarveṇa bhāvena munir-yathāvat |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

sa48 vismayotphulla-viśāla-dṛṣṭir-gambhīra-dhīrāṇi vacāṁsy-uvāca || 1.54



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Mālā)

mahātmani tvayy-upapannam-etat priyātithau tyāgini dharma-kāme |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

sattvānvaya-jñāna-vayo-'nurūpā snigdhā yad-evaṁ mayi te matiḥ syāt || 1.55



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Bālā)

etac-ca tad-yena nṛpa-rṣayas-te dharmeṇa sūkṣmeṇa49 dhanāny-avāpya50 |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

nityaṁ tyajanto vidhivad-babhūvus-tapobhir-āḍh51 vibhavair-daridrāḥ || 1.56



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Kīrti)

prayojanaṁ yat-tu mamopayāne tan-me śṛṇu prītim-upehi52 ca tvam |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

divyā mayāditya-pathe53 śrutā vāg-bodhāya jātas-tanayas-taveti || 1.57



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

śrutvā vacas-tac-ca manaś-ca yuktvā jñātvā nimittaiś-ca tato 'smyupetaḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

didkṣayā śākya-kula-dhvajasya śakra-dhvajasyeva samucchritasya || 1.58



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Vāṇī)

ity-etad-evaṁ54 vacanaṁ niśamya praharṣa-saṁbhrānta-gatir-narendraḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

ādāya dhātry-aṅka-gataṁ kumāraṁ saṁdarśayām-āsa tapo-dhanāya || 1.59

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Bālā)

cakrāṅka-pādaṁ sa tato55 mahārṣir-jālāvanaddhāṅguli56-pāṇi-pādam |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

sora-bhruvaṁ57 vāraṇa-vasti-kośaṁ savismayaṁ rāja-sutaṁ dadarśa || 1.60



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

dhātry-aṅka-saṁviṣṭam-avekṣya cainaṁ devy-aṅka-saṁviṣṭam-ivāgni-sūnum |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

babhūva pakṣmānta-vicañcitāśrur-niśvasya caiva58 tridivonmukho 'bhūt || 1.61



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

dṣṭvāsitaṁ tv-aśru59-pariplutākṣaṁ snehāt-tanū-jasya npaś-cakampe |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

sa-gadgadaṁ bāṣpa-kaṣāya-kaṅṭhaḥ papraccha sa prāṅjalir-ānatāṅgaḥ60 || 1.62



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Indravajrā)

alpāntaraṁ yasya vapuḥ surebhyo bahv-adbhutaṁ yasya ca janma dīptam |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

yasyottamaṁ bhāvinam-āttha cārthaṁ taṁ prekṣya61 kasmāt-tava dhīra bāṣpaḥ || 1.63



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Ārdrā)

api sthirāyur-bhagavan kumāraḥ kac-cin-na62 śokāya mama prasūtaḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

labdhā kathaṁ-cit salilāñjalir-me na khalv-imaṁ pātum-upaiti63 kālaḥ || 1.64



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Sālā)

apy-akṣayaṁ me yaśaso nidhānaṁ kac-cid-dhruvo me kula-hasta-sāraḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦⏑−⏑−−

api prayāsyāmi sukhaṁ paratra supto 'pi putre64 'nimiṣaika-cakṣuḥ || 1.65



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Vāṇī)

kac-cin-na me jātam-aphullam-eva kula-pravālaṁ pariśoṣa-bhāgi |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

kṣipraṁ vibho brūhi na me 'sti65 śāntiḥ snehaṁ sute vetsi hi bāndhavānām || 1.66



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

ity-āgatāvegam-aniṣṭa-buddhyā66 buddhvā narendraṁ sa munir-babhāṣe |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

mā bhūn-matis-te npa kā-cid-anyā niḥsaṁśayaṁ tad-yad-avocam-asmi || 1.67



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (Indravajrā)

nāsyānyathātvaṁ prati vikriyā me svāṁ vañcanā67 tu prati viklavo 'smi |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

kālo hi me yātum-ayaṁ ca jāto jāti-kṣayasyāsulabhasya boddhā || 1.68



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Upajāti (ddhi)

vihāya rājyaṁ viṣayeṣv-anāsthas-tīvraiḥ prayatnair-adhigamya tattvam |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

jagaty-ayaṁ moha-tamo nihantuṁ jvaliṣyati jñāna-mayo hi sūryaḥ || 1.69



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Vāṇī)

duḥkhārṇavād-vyādhi-vikīrṇa-phenāj-jarā-taraṅgān-maraṇogra-vegāt |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

uttārayiṣyaty-ayam-uhyamānam-ārtaṁ jagaj68-jñāna-mahā-plavena || 1.70



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Vāṇī)

prajñāṁbu-vegāṁ sthira-śīla-vaprā69 samādhi-śītāṁ vrata-cakravākām |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

asyottamāṁ dharma-nadīṁ pravttāṁ tṣṇārditaḥ pāsyati jīva-lokaḥ || 1.71



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Indravajrā)

duḥkhārditebhyo viṣayāvtebhyaḥ70 saṁsāra-kāntāra-patha-sthitebhyaḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

ākhyāsyati hy-eṣa vimokṣa-mārgaṁ mārga-pranaṣṭebhya ivādhvagebhyaḥ || 1.72



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Kīrti)

vidahyamānāya janāya loke rāgāgnināyaṁ viṣayendhanena |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

prahlādam71-ādhāsyati dharma-vṣṭyā vṣṭyā mahā-megha ivātapānte || 1.73



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Sālā)

tṣṇārgalaṁ72 moha-tamaḥ-kapāṭaṁ dvāraṁ prajānām-apayāna-hetoḥ |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

vipāṭayiṣyaty-ayam-uttamena saddharma-tāḍena dur-āsadena || 1.74



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Bālā)

svair-moha-pāśaiḥ pariveṣṭitasya duḥkhābhibhūtasya nirāśrayasya |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

lokasya saṁbudhya ca dharma-rājaḥ kariṣyate bandhana-mokṣam-eṣaḥ || 1.75



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Indravajrā)

tan-mā kthāḥ śokam-imaṁ prati tvam asmin sa śocyo 'sti73 manuṣya-loke |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

mohena vā kāma-sukhair-madād-vā yo naiṣṭhikaṁ74 śroṣyati nāsya dharmam || 1.76



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Indravajrā)

bhraṣṭasya tasmāc-ca guṇād-ato me dhyānāni labdhvāpy75-aktārthataiva |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

dharmasya tasyāśravaṇād-ahaṁ hi manye vipattiṁ tri-dive 'pi vāsam || 1.77



⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Kīrti)

iti śrutārthaḥ sasuht-sadāras-tyaktvā viṣādaṁ mumude narendraḥ |

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

evaṁ-vidho 'yaṁ tanayo mameti mene sa hi svām-api sāravattām76 || 1.78



−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Sālā)

āreṇa mārgeṇa77 tu yāsyatīti cintā-vidheyaṁ hdayaṁ cakāra |

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−

na khalv-asau na priya-dharma-pakṣaḥ saṁtāna-nāśāt-tu bhayaṁ dadarśa || 1.79



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

atha munir-asito nivedya tattvaṁ suta-niyataṁ suta-viklavāya rājñe |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

sa-bahu-matam-udīkṣyamāṇa78-rūpaḥ pavana-pathena yathāgataṁ jagāma || 1.80



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

kta-mitir-anujā-sutaṁ ca dṣṭvā muni-vacana-śravaṇe ca tan-matau ca |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

bahu-vidham-anukampayā sa sādhuḥ priya-sutavad-viniyojayāṁ-cakāra || 1.81



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

nara-patir-api putra-janma-tuṣṭo viṣaya-gatāni vimucya bandhanāni79 |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

kula-sadśam80-acīkarad-yathāvat-priya-tanayas tanayasya jāta-karma || 1.82



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

daśasu pariṇateṣv-ahaḥsu caiva prayata-manāḥ parayā mudā parītaḥ |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

akuruta japa-homa-maṅgalādyāḥ parama-bhavāya sutasya devatejyāḥ || 1.83



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

api ca śata81-sahasra-pūrṇa-saṁkhyāḥ sthira-balavat-tanayāḥ sahema-śṅgīḥ |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

anupagata-jarāḥ payasvinīr-gāḥ svayam-adadāt-suta-vddhaye dvijebhyaḥ || 1.84



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

bahu-vidha-viṣayās-tato yatātmā sva-hdaya-toṣa-karīḥ kriyā vidhāya |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

guṇavati divase82 śive muhūrte matim-akaron-muditaḥ pura-praveśe || 1.85



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

dvi-rada-rada-mayīm-atho mahārhāṁ83 sita-sita-puṣpa-bhtāṁ maṇi-pradīpām |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

abhajata śivikāṁ śivāya devī tanayavatī praṇipatya devatābhyaḥ || 1.86



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

puram-atha purataḥ praveśya patnīṁ sthavira-janānugatām-apatya-nāthām |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

n-patir-api jagāma paura-saṁghair-divam-amarair-maghavān-ivārcyamānaḥ || 1.87



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

bhavanam-atha84 vigāhya śākya-rājo bhava iva ṣaṇ-mukha-janmanā pratītaḥ |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

idam-idam-iti harṣa-pūrṇa-vaktro bahu-vidha-puṣṭi-yaśas-karaṁ vyadhatta || 1.88



⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−− Puṣpitāgrā

iti nara-pati-putra-janma-vddhyā85 sa-jana-padaṁ kapilāhvayaṁ puraṁ tat |

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−

dhana-da-puram-ivāpsaro-'vakīrṇaṁ muditam-abhūn-nala-kūbara-prasūtau || 1.89



iti buddha-carite mahā-kāvye bhagavat-prasūtir-nāma prathamaḥ sargaḥ || 1 ||



1 佛所行讃, loosely translated (mainly paraphrased) from Sanskrit into Chinese probably by the Chinese monk Baoyun (376–449). Text in Chinese characters (Taisho Daizokyo Vol. 4. No. 192) available online through Tokyo Univesity.

2 Buddha tsa ri ta ma h’a k’a bya, translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan, probably between 1260 and 1280 (see D. P. Jackson, “On the Date of the Tibetan Translation of Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita,” Studia Indologiczne 4 [1997]: 54). Text in romanized Tibetan available online through University of Oslo.

3 Aśvaghoṣa in Central Asia: Some Comments on the Recensional History of His Works in Light of Recent Manuscript Disoveries by Richard Salomon, University of Washington, one of a collection of essays published in Buddhism Across Boundaries (1999), ISBN: 957-543-860-4.

4 Zwei Zentralasiatische Fragmente Des Buddhacarita (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1953).

5 Neue Aśvaghoṣa- und Mātṛceṭa Fragmente aus Ostturkistan (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht in Gottingen, 1988).

6 If EHJ's conjecture is correct, the metre is either Indravajrā or Vāṇī, depending on whether the 2nd pāda begins with a heavy or light consonant.

7 CSL garbaṁ (typo).

8 FOLIO 2 STARTS HERE.

9 Old Nepalese manuscript: yathorvvasya.

10 Old Nepalese manuscript: abhiniḥstasya babhau (all rewritten).

11 Old Nepalese manuscript: anekeṣv iva.

12 Old Nepalese manuscript: dhairyeṇa [character defaced] yā.

13 Old Nepalese manuscript: prabhayā jvalantyā.

14 Old Nepalese manuscript: ubja, with a correction on the manuscript to abja “water born.” Ignoring the correction, EHJ opted to read anākulānyubja as a single compound, noting that ubja does not occur elsewhere.

15 Old Nepalese manuscript: niṣpeṣavanty āyata.

16 Old Nepalese manuscript: śarīra[four characters torn and illegible]khāntarāya. EHJ queried saṁparka (comingling, union) for saṁsparśa (touch, close mutual contact).

17 Lūders: yaṁ.

18 EHJ notes that the first eight syllables are illegible in the old Nepalese manuscript, and that the restoration of the first five syllables cannot be easily determined; judging from the Tibetan and Chinese translations, EHJ surmised that the first three syllables were adṛśya (invisible), avyakta (not manifest, invisible) or nigūḍha (hidden), compounded with bhūtāḥ (being, being like) or bhāvāḥ (becoming, being). EBC: māyātanūjasya (“to the son of Māyā”; presumably a conjecture by Amṛtānanda). CSL: [adṛśya-bhāvā]ś ca (remaining invisible). Aśvaghoṣa uses nigūḍha in SN1.52.

19 Bohtlingk: adhārayan.

20 Old Nepalese manuscript: śuddhādhivāsāś.

21 Old Nepalese manuscript: hitoya.

22 Old Nepalese manuscript: prasūto.

23 Old Nepalese manuscript: sūrya.

24 Old Nepalese manuscript: dharmmārthibhi bhūta-.

25 Old Nepalese manuscript: āprapūrai.

26 FOLIO 2 of the old Nepalese manuscript ends here.

27 EHJ queried nipātitāni (made to fall, from ni-√pat). He stated that the last word is a verb compounded with ni, equivalent to sraṁs (to drop) or vyadh (to pelt). CSL has [nipātitāni].

28 FOLIO 4 of the old Nepalese manuscript begins traiva ca no nibodha.

29 EHJ queried aṅgirāś ca.

30 Old Nepalese manuscript: sāraśvataś.

31

32 Old Nepalese manuscript: vaśiṣṭhaḥ.

33

34 Old Nepalese manuscript: nātri.

35 Old Nepalese manuscript: rājaṁ.

36 Old Nepalese manuscript: saureḥ.

37 Old Nepalese manuscript: na vayo na kālaḥ.

38 Old Nepalese manuscript: upeti.

39 Old Nepalese manuscript: pratyayitai(?to?).

40 Old Nepalese manuscript: saṅkāṁ.

41 Old Nepalese manuscript: yathoktau.

42 Old Nepalese manuscript: taj-janya.

43 EHJ amended to brahmavid-brahmavidaṁ based on the Tibetan translation, taking brahmavid-brahmavidaṁ to be a compound in the accusative, agreeing with taṁ and therefore describing Asita as “knower of brahman among brahman-knowers,” i.e. “chief among knowers of brahman.” In the original brahmavid is nominative singular and brahmavidāṁ is genitive plural, so that the king's guru is being described as “a knower of brahman among brahman-knowers.”

44 Old Nepalese manuscript: śatkriyābhyāṁ.

45 EHJ amended to saṁjñayeva. Whether eva or iva does not materially affect the meaning.

46 Old Nepalese manuscript: vaśiṣtaṁ.

47 Old Nepalese manuscript: nṛpenopamantritaḥ. CSL: nṛpeṇopanimantritah.

48 This sa can be read as “he” or as the possessive prefix “with.” In the latter case, read sa-vismayotphulla-.

49 Old Nepalese manuscript: sūkṣmāṇi.

50 Amṛtananda has apaṣya. EHJ cites this as an example of Amṛtananda altering a word he did not understand.

51 Old Nepalese manuscript: ādyā.

52 Old Nepalese manuscript: upaihi.

53 Old Nepalese manuscript: mayā divya-pathe. EHJ's amendment is supported by the Chinese 我從日道來 , “I came, following the path of the sun.”

54 Old Nepalese manuscript: aivam.

55 Old Nepalese manuscript: tathā.

56 Old Nepalese manuscript: jālāvanaddhāvaṅguli.

57 Old Nepalese manuscript: svarṇṇa-bhuvaṁ.

58 Old Nepalese manuscript: caivaṁ. Amended following Bohtlingk's conjecture.

59 Old Nepalese manuscript: asru.

60 Old Nepalese manuscript: prāṅjali c(?)ānatāṅgaḥ.

61 Old Nepalese manuscript: prekṣa.

62 Old Nepalese manuscript: kaś-cin-na.

63 Old Nepalese manuscript: yātum upeti.

64 Old Nepalese manuscript: putro. Amended following the conjecture of Levi and Formichi.

65 Old Nepalese manuscript: stiḥ (with mark over visarga to show error).

66 Old Nepalese manuscript: budhvā.

67 Old Nepalese manuscript: vā(?va?)ñcanān.

68 Old Nepalese manuscript: jagata.

69 Old Nepalese manuscript: vaprā.

70 Old Nepalese manuscript: viṣayāvṛttebhyaḥ. Philosophically viṣayāvṛtta (turned around/stirred by objects) would work, but the double tt would cause the 3rd syllable from the end of the pāda to be long, which the metre does not permit.

71 Old Nepalese manuscript: prahlāyam (with a note in the margin [a gloss] indicating that the meaning is sukha).

72 Old Nepalese manuscript: tṛṣṇāggaḍam.

73 Old Nepalese manuscript: tat saumya śocya ha (with śocya corrected to śocye and ha written over a double letter). In a footnote to his translation, EHJ adds that the readings here are uncertain, but he takes gnas in the Tibetan translation to stand for asti.

74 Old Nepalese manuscript: neṣṭhikaṁ.

75 Old Nepalese manuscript: ladhvāpy.

76 Old Nepalese manuscript: sāramattām. Amended following Bohtlingk's conjecture.

77 Old Nepalese manuscript: āryeṇa mārggeṇa. EHJ: ārṣeṇa mārgeṇa. EHJ's amendment of āryeṇa (noble) to ārṣena (of the ṛṣis) is based on the Chinese translation, which has 修習仙人道 , “cultivating the path/way of the sage/seer.”

78 Old Nepalese manuscript: udīkṣamāṇa.

79 Old Nepalese manuscript: bhandavāni.

80 Old Nepalese manuscript: śadṛśam.

81 Old Nepalese manuscript: sata.

82 EHJ amended the old Nepalese manuscript's divase to niyate.

83 Old Nepalese manuscript: marhārhaṁ.

84 CSL: bhavam atha.

85 Old Nepalese manuscript/EBC/EHJ/CSL: vṛddhyā.






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