yoṣito dṛṣṭvā nando nandana-cāriṇīḥ /
so, having gazed upon those women who wander in the Gladdening
Gardens of Nandana,
niyama-stambhe durdamaṃ capalaṃ manaḥ // 11.1 //
tethered the fickle and unruly mind to a tethering post of restraint.
'niṣṭa-naiṣkramya-raso mlāna-tāma-rasopamaḥ /
to relish the taste of freedom from care, sapless as a wilting lotus,
viraso dharmaṃ niveśyāpsaraso hṛdi // 11.2 //
went through the motions of dharma-practice, having installed the
apsarases already in his heart.
lolendriyo bhūtvā dayitendriya-gocaraḥ /
did one whose sense-power had been restless, whose senses had grazed
on the pasture of his wife,
babhūva niyatendriyaḥ // 11.3 //
by the very power of sense-objects, to have his sense-power reined
kuśalo bhikṣu-caryāsu viklavaḥ /
in the practices of love, confused about the practices of a beggar,
brahma-caryaṃ cacāra saḥ // 11.4 //
firm by the best of practice guides, Nanda did the devout practice of
ca śāntena tīvreṇa madanena ca /
restraint and ardent love,
saṃsargāc-chaśāma ca śuśoṣa ca // 11.5 //
water and fire in tandem, smothered him and burned him dry.
'pi vairūpyam-agamat param /
naturally good-looking, he became extremely ugly,
caiva niyamenāyatena ca // 11.6 //
from agonizing about the apsarases and from protracted
bhāryāyāṃ priya-bhāryas-tathāpi saḥ /
when mention was made of his wife, he who had been so devoted to his
ivottasthau na jaharṣa na cukṣubhe // 11.7 //
by, seemingly bereft of passion; he neither bristled nor quavered.
vyavasthitam-ājñāya bhāryā-rāgāt parāṅ-mukham /
him to be adamant, turned away from passion for his wife,
praṇayād-idam // 11.8 //
having come that way, said to Nanda with affection:
sadṛśam-ārabdhaṃ śrutasyābhijanasya ca /
This is a beginning that befits an educated and well-born man --
svastho niyame yadi saṃsthitaḥ // 11.9 //
you are holding back the power of your senses and, abiding in
yourself, you are set on restraint!
kāmeṣu rāgiṇo viṣayātmanaḥ /
one entangled in desires, in a man of passion, a sensualist,
saṃvid-utpannā neyam-alpena hetunā // 11.10 //
such consciousness has arisen -- this is by no small cause!
yatnena mṛduḥ pratinivāryate /
mild illness is warded off with little effort;
prabalair-eva yatnair-naśyati vā na vā // 11.11 //
serious illness is cured with serious efforts, or else it is not.
mānaso vyādhir-balavāṃś-ca tavābhavat /
illness of the mind is hard to remove, and yours was a powerful one.
yadi sa te sarvathā dhṛtimān-asi // 11.12 //
you are rid of it, you are in every way steadfast.
sādhv-anāryeṇa māninā caiva mārdavam /
an ignoble man good is hard to do; for an arrogant man it is hard to
lubdhena brahmacaryaṃ ca rāgiṇā // 11.13 //
a greedy man giving is hard, and hard for a man of passion is the
practice of devout abstinence.
mama saṃdehas-tavāsyāṃ niyame dhṛtau /
I have one doubt concerning this steadfastness of yours in restraint.
vaktavyaṃ yadi manyase // 11.14 //
would like assurance on this matter, if you think fit to tell me.
vākyaṃ na ca gantavyam-anyathā /
talk should not be taken amiss:
śuddhe rukṣato naiti sajjanaḥ // 11.15 //
harsh it is, so long as its intention is pure, a good man will not
retain it as harsh.
hi hitaṃ snigdham-asnigdham-ahitaṃ priyam /
there is disagreeable good advice, which is kind; and there is
agreeable bad advice, which is not kind;
tu priya-hitaṃ svādu pathyam-ivauṣadham // 11.16 //
advice that is both agreeable and good is as hard to come by as
medicine that is both sweet and salutary.
ca sāmānyaṃ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ /
acting in the other's interest, sharing of joy and sorrow,
praṇayaś-caiva mitra-vṛttir-iyaṃ satām // 11.17 //
tolerance, as well as affection: such, between good men, is the
conduct of a friend.
tvā vivakṣāmi praṇayān-na jighāṃsayā /
now I am going to speak to you out of affection, with no wish to
hi vivakṣā me yat-te nārhāmy-upekṣitum // 11.18 //
my intention is to speak of that better way for you in regard to
which I ought not to be indifferent.
dharmaṃ carasīty-abhidhīyase /
are practising dharma, so they say, for
celestial nymphs as wages.
bhūtam-āho-svit parihāso 'yam-īdṛśaḥ // 11.19 //
that so? Is it true? such a thing would be a joke!
tāvad-idaṃ satyaṃ vakṣyāmy-atra yad-auṣadham /
this really is true, I will tell you a medicine for it;
vaktṝṇām-abhidhāsyāmi tad-rajaḥ // 11.20 //
if it is the impertinence of chatterers, then that dust I shall
tena hṛdi so 'bhihatas-tadā /
-- though it was tenderly done -- Nanda was stricken in his heart.
dīrghaṃ niśaśvāsa kiṁ-cic-cāvāṅmukho 'bhavat // 11.21 //
he drew in a long breath, and his face inclined slightly downward.
jñātvā manaḥ-saṃkalpa-sūcakam /
so, knowing the signs that betrayed the set of Nanda's mind,
vākyam-ānando madhurodarkam-apriyam // 11.22 //
spoke words which were disagreeable but sweet in consequence:
tava dharma-prayojanam /
know from the look on your face what your motive is in practising
tvayi jātaṃ me hāsyaṃ kāruṇyam-eva ca // 11.23 //
knowing that, there arises in me towards you laughter and at the same
skandhena kaś-cid gurvīṃ śilāṃ vahet /
somebody who, with a view to sitting on it, carried around on his
shoulder a heavy rock;
kāmārthaṃ niyamaṃ voḍhum-udyataḥ // 11.24 //
is how you, with a view to sensuality, are labouring to bear
dṛpto yathā meṣo 'pasarpsati /
as, in its desire to charge, a wild ram draws back,
brahmacaryam-idaṃ tava // 11.25 //
for the sake of non-abstinence, is this devout abstinence of yours!
yathā paṇyaṃ vaṇijo lābha-lipsayā /
as merchants buy merchandise moved by a desire to make profit,
tava tathā paṇya-bhūtā na śāntaye // 11.26 //
is how you are practising dharma, as if it were a tradable commodity,
not for the sake of peace.
phala-viśeṣārthaṁ bījaṃ vapati kārṣakaḥ /
as, with a particular crop in view, a ploughman scatters seed,
viṣaya-kārpaṇyād viṣayāṃs-tyaktavān-asi // 11.27 //
is how, because of being desperate for an object, you have renounced
yathā rogaṃ pratīkāra-sukhepsayā /
as a man who craves some pleasurable remedy might want to be ill,
bhavāṃs-tathā viṣaya-tṛṣṇayā // 11.28 //
is how in your thirst for an object you are seeking out suffering.
paśyati madhv-eva na prapātam-avekṣate /
as a man sees honey and fails to notice a precipice,
bhraṃśam-ante na paśyasi // 11.29 //
is how you are seeing the heavenly
nymphs and not seeing the fall that will come in the end.
kāmāgninā dīpte kāyena vahato vratam /
with a fire of desire in your heart, you carry out observances with
brahmacaryaṃ te manasābrahmacāriṇaḥ // 11.30 //
is this devout abstinence of yours, who does not practise abstinence
with his mind?
vartamānena yadā cāpsarasas-tvayā /
since in spiralling through saṁsāra you have gained celestial
nymphs and left them
śataśas-tābhyaḥ kim-iti te spṛhā // 11.31 //
hundred times over, what is this yearning of yours for those women?
fire is not satisfied by dry brushwood, nor the salty ocean by water,
kāmaiḥ sa-tṛṣṇasya tasmāt kāmā na tṛptaye // 11.32 //
a man of thirst by his desires. Desires, therefore, do not make for
ca kutaḥ śāntir-aśāntau ca kutaḥ sukham /
satisfaction, whence peace? Without peace, whence ease?
ca kutaḥ prītir-aprītau ca kuto ratiḥ // 11.33 //
ease, whence joy? Without joy, whence enjoyment?
yadi te tasmād-adhyātme dhīyatāṃ manaḥ /
if you want enjoyment, let your mind be directed within.
cānavadyā ca nāsty-adhyātma-samā ratiḥ // 11.34 //
and impeccable is enjoyment of the inner self and there is no
enjoyment to equal it.
tatra kāryaṃ tūryais-te na strībhir-na vibhūṣaṇaiḥ /
it, you have no need of musical instruments, or women, or ornaments;
yatra-tatra-sthas-tayā ratyābhiraṃsyase // 11.35 //
your own, wherever you are, you can indulge in that enjoyment.
balavad duḥkhaṃ tarṣe tiṣṭhati tiṣṭhati /
mind suffers mightily as long as thirst persists.
tarṣaṃ chindhi duḥkhaṃ hi tṛṣṇā cāsti ca nāsti ca //
that thirst; for suffering co-exists with thirst, or else does not
vā vipattau vā divā vā naktam-eva vā /
prosperity or in adversity, by day or by night,
hi sa-tṛṣṇasya na śāntir-upapadyate // 11.37 //
the man who thirsts after desires,
peace is not possible.
prārthanā duḥkhā prāptau tṛptir-na vidyate /
pursuit of desires is full of suffering, and attainment of them is
not where satisfaction lies;
śoko viyogaś-ca dhruvo divi // 11.38 //
separation from them is inevitably sorrowful; but the celestial
constant is separation.
duṣkaraṃ karma svargaṁ labdhvāpi durlabham /
having done action that is hard to do, and reached a heaven that is
hard to reach,
punar-evaiti pravāsāt sva-gṛhaṃ yathā // 11.39 //
man comes right back to the world of men, as if to his own house
after a spell away.
bhraṣṭasya kuśalaṃ śiṣṭaṃ kiṃ-cin-na vidyate /
backslider when his residual good has run out
pitṛ-loke vā narake vopapadyate // 11.40 //
himself among the animals or in the world of the departed, or else he
goes to hell.
bhuktavataḥ svarge viṣayān-uttamān-api /
enjoyed in heaven the utmost sensual objects,
duḥkhena kim-āsvādaḥ karoti saḥ // 11.41 //
falls back, beset by suffering: what has that enjoyment done for him?
prāṇi-vātsalyāt sva-māṃsāny-api dattavān /
tender love for living creatures Śibi gave his own flesh to a hawk.
svargāt paribhraṣṭas-tādṛk kṛtvāpi duṣkaram // 11.42 //
fell back from heaven, even after doing such a difficult deed.
gatvā pūrva-pārthiva eva yaḥ /
attained half of Indra's throne as a veritable earth-lord of the old
devatvaṃ gate kāle māndhātādhaḥ punar-yayau // 11.43 //
when his time with the gods elapsed came back down again.
kṛtvāpi devānāṃ papāta nahuṣo bhuvi /
he ruled the gods, Nahuṣa fell to earth;
kila bhujaṃgatvaṃ nādyāpi parimucyate // 11.44 //
turned into a snake, so they say, and even today has not wriggled
rājā rāja-vṛttena saṃskṛtaḥ /
King Ilivila being perfect in kingly conduct,
gatvā punar-bhraṣṭaḥ kūrmī-bhūtaḥ kilārṇave // 11.45
to heaven and fell back down, becoming, so they say, a turtle in the
yayātiś-ca te cānye ca nṛpa-rṣabhāḥ /
and Yayāti and other excellent kings,
tat-kṣayāt punar-atyajan // 11.46 //
bought heaven by their actions, gave it up again, after that karma
ran out --
pūrva-devās-tu surair-apahṛta-śriyaḥ /
the asuras, who had been gods in heaven when the suras
robbed them of their rank,
samanuśocantaḥ pātālaṃ śaraṇaṃ yayuḥ // 11.47 //
bemoaning their lost glory down to their Pātāla lair.
ca rāja-rṣibhis-tāvad-asurair-vā surādibhiḥ /
why such citing of royal seers, or of asuras, suras,
and the like?
śataśaḥ petur-māhātmyam-api na sthiram // 11.48 //
Indras have fallen in their hundreds! Even the most exalted position
is not secure.
Indra's luminous sidekick, he of the three strides, lit up Indra's
papātorvīṃ madhyād-apsarasāṃ rasan // 11.49 //
yet when his karma waned he fell to earth from the apsarases'
caitraratha hā vāpi hā mandākini hā priye /
the grove of Citra-ratha!
Oh, the pond! Oh, the heavenly Ganges! Oh, my beloved!" --
vilapanto 'pi gāṃ patanti divaukasaḥ // 11.50 //
lament the distressed denizens of heaven as they fall to earth.
hy-utpadyate duḥkham-iha tāvan-mumūrṣatām /
intense already is the pain that arises in those facing death in this
punaḥ patatāṃ svargād-evānte sukha-sevinām // 11.51 //
how much worse is it for the pleasure-addicts when they finally fall
gṛṇhanti vāsāṃsi mlāyanti paramāḥ srajaḥ /
clothes gather dust; their glorious garlands wither;
jāyate svedo ratir-bhavati nāsane // 11.52 //
appears on their limbs; and in their sitting there is no enjoyment.
nimittāni cyutau svargād divaukasām /
are the first signs of the imminent fall from heaven of sky-dwellers,
martyānām-ariṣṭāni mumūrṣatām // 11.53 //
the unwelcome but sure signs of the approaching death of those
subject to dying.
yac-ca divi kāmān-upāśnatām /
the pleasure that arises from enjoyment of desires in heaven
duḥkhaṃ nipatatāṃ duḥkham-eva viśiṣyate // 11.54 //
compared with the pain of falling, the pain, assuredly, is greater.
heaven, therefore, to be ill-fated, precarious,
kṣayiṇaṃ svargam-apavarge matiṃ kuru // 11.55 //
unsatisfactory, and transitory, set your heart upon immunity from
bhavāgraṃ hi gatvāpi munir-udrakaḥ /
though he attained a peak experience of bodiless being, Sage Uḍraka,
'nte cyutas-tasmāt tiryag-yoniṃ prapatsyate // 11.56 //
the expiration of his karma, will fall from that state into the womb
of an animal.
sapta-vārṣikyā brahma-lokam-ito gataḥ /
seven years of loving kindness, Sunetra went from here to Brahma's
punar-āvṛtto garbha-vāsam-upeyivān // 11.57 //
he span around again and came back to live in a womb.
caiśvaryavanto 'pi kṣayiṇaḥ svarga-vāsinaḥ /
heaven-dwellers, even when all-powerful, are subject to decay,
nāma svarga-vāsāya kṣeṣṇave spṛhayed budhaḥ // 11.58 //
wise man would aspire to a decadent sojourn in heaven?
baddho hi yathā vihaṃgo vyāvartate dūragato 'pi bhūyaḥ /
just as a bird tied to a string, though it has flown far, comes back
tathāvabaddho gato 'pi dūraṃ punar-eti lokaḥ // 11.59 //
too do people return who are tied to the string of ignorance, however
far they have travelled.
kāla-vilakṣaṇaṁ pratibhuvā mukto yathā bandhanād
man temporarily released from prison on bail
veshma-sukhāny atītya samayaṁ bhūyo vished bandhanaṁ
home comforts and then, when his time is up, he must go back to
dyāṃ pratibhūvad-ātma-niyamair-dhyānādibhiḥ prāptavān
the same way, through restrictive practices beginning with
meditation, a man gets to heaven, as if on bail,
karmasu teṣu bhukta-viṣayeṣv-ākṛṣyate gāṁ punaḥ //
after enjoying those objects which were his karmic reward, he
eventually is dragged back down to earth.
pramatta-manaso mīnās-taḍāge yathā
in a pond who have swum into a net, unwarily,
vyasanaṃ na rodha-janitaṃ svasthāś-caranty-ambhasi /
not know the misfortune that results from capture, but contentedly
move around in the water;
the same way, meditators in heaven (who are really of this world of
men), think that they have achieved their end;
śivam-acyutaṃ dhruvam-iti svaṃ sthānam-āvartakam // 11.61 //
so they assume their own position to be favourable, secure and
settled -- as they continue to whirl around.
see this world to be shot through with the calamities of birth,
sickness, and death;
bhrāmyamāṇaṃ divi nṛṣu narake tiryak-pitṛṣu ca /
it -- whether in heaven, among men, in hell, or among animals or the
departed -- to be reeling through saṁsāra.
nirbhayaṃ yac-chivam-amarajaraṃ niḥśokam-amṛtaṃ
the world to be thus, for the sake of that fearless refuge, for that
sorrowless nectar of immortality, which is benign, and beyond death
cara jahi-hi calaṃ svargaṃ prati rucim // 11.62 //
practise abstinence, and abandon your fancy for a precarious heaven.
mahākāvye svargāpavādo nāma aikādaśaḥ sargaḥ
11th canto in the epic poem Handsome Nanda, titled "Negation of