mano-dhāraṇayā krameṇa vyapohya kiṁ-cit samupohya kiṁ-cit /
by methodically taking possession of the mind, getting rid of
something and gathering something together,
catvāry-adhigamya yogī prāpnoty-abhijñā niyamena pañca // 16.1
practitioner makes the four dhyānas
his own, and duly acquires the five powers of knowing:
ca bahu-prakāraṃ parasya cetaś-caritāvabodham /
principal transcendent power, taking many forms; then being awake to
what others are thinking;
ca dīrghaṃ divye viśuddhe śruti-cakṣuṣī ca // 16.2 //
remembering past lives from long ago; and divine lucidity of ear; and
paraṃ tattva-parikṣaṇena mano dadhāty-āsrava-saṃkṣayāya
then on, through investigation of what is, he applies his mind to
destroying the polluting influences,
hi duḥkha-prabhṛtīni samyak catvāri satyāni padāny-avaiti //
on this basis he fully understands suffering and the rest, the four
duḥkham-idaṃ prasaktaṃ duḥkhasya hetuḥ prabhavātmako 'yam
is suffering, which is constant and akin to trouble; this is the
cause of suffering, akin to starting it;
niḥsaraṇātmako 'yaṃ trāṇātmako 'yaṃ praśamāya mārgaḥ
// 16.4 //
This is cessation of suffering,
akin to walking away. And this, akin to a refuge, is a peaceable
buddhyā catvāri samyak pratividhya caiva /
these noble truths, by a process of reasoning, while getting to know
the four as one,
bhāvanayābhibhūya na jāyate śāntimavāpya bhūyaḥ // 16.5 //
prevails over all pollutants, by the means of mental development,
and, on finding peace, is no longer subject to becoming.
hy-aprativedhataś-ca tattvātmakasyāsya catuṣṭasya /
by failing to wake up and come round to this four, whose substance is
the reality of what is,
bhavaṃ yāti na śantim-eti saṃsāra-dolām-adhiruhya lokaḥ //
goes from existence to existence without finding peace, hoisted in
the swing of saṁsāra.
mūlaṃ samāsato duḥkham-avaihi janma /
at the root of a tragedy like growing old, see, in short, that birth
bhūr-bhavāya sarvāpadāṃ kṣetram-idaṃ hi janma // 16.7 //
as the earth supports the life of all plants, this birth is the field
of all troubles.
hi sendriyasya duḥkhasya tan-naika-vidhasya janma /
birth of a sentient bodily form, again, is the birth of suffering in
all its varieties;
saṃbhavaś-cāsya samucchrayasya mṛtyoś-ca rogasya ca saṃbhavaḥ
saḥ // 16.8 //
he who begets such an outgrowth is the begetter of death and of
viṣa-miśram-annaṃ yathā vināśāya na dhāraṇāya /
food or bad food, if mixed with poison, makes for ruin and not for
tathā tiryag-upary-adho vā duḥkhāya sarvaṃ na sukhāya janma
// 16.9 //
Likewise, whether in a world on
the flat or above or below, all birth makes for hardship and not for
naika-vidhāḥ prajānāṃ satyāṃ pravṛttau
many and various disappointments of men, like old age, occur as long
as their doing goes on.
ghoreṣv-api māruteṣu na hy-aprasūtās-taravaś-calanti // 16.10
even when violent winds blow, trees do not shake that never
pavano yathā hi yathā śamī-garbha-śayo hutāśaḥ /
wind is born from the air, as fire sleeps in the womb of śamī
yathāntar-vasudhā-śayāś-ca duḥkhaṃ tathā citta-śarīra-yoni
// 16.11 //
as water gestates inside the earth, so does suffering spring from an
dravatvaṃ kaṭhinatvam-urvyā vāyoś-calatvaṃ
fluidity of water, the solidity of earth, the motion of wind, and the
constant heat of fire
sva-bhāvo hi tathā sva-bhāvo duḥkhaṃ śarīrasya ca cetasaś-ca
// 16.12 //
Are innate in them; as
also it is in the nature of both the body and the mind to suffer.
sati vyādhi-jarādi duḥkhaṃ kṣut-tarṣa-varṣoṣṇa-himādi
as there is a body, there is the suffering of sickness, aging and so
on; and also of hunger and thirst, and of the rains, and summer heat
and winter cold.
cetasi sānubandhe śok-ārati-krodha-bhayādi duḥkham // 16.13 //
as a mind is bonded, tied to phenomena, there is the suffering of
grief, discontent, anger, fear and so on.
ca janma-duḥkhaṃ duḥkhaṃ tathātītam-apīti viddhi /
now before your eyes that birth is suffering, recognise that likewise
in the past it was suffering.
ca tad-duḥkham-idaṃ ca duḥkhaṃ duḥkhaṃ
tathānāgatam-apy-avehi // 16.14 //
just as that was suffering and this is suffering, know that likewise
in the future it will be suffering.
hi yatheha dṛṣṭo bhūto 'pi bhavyo 'pi tathānumeyaḥ /
just as it is evident to us now what kind of thing a seed is, we can
infer that it was so in the past and that it will be so in the
jvalano yathoṣṇo bhūto 'pi bhavyo 'pi tathoṣṇa eva // 16.15
And just as fire burning before us is
hot, so was it hot and so will it be hot.
guṇānurūpaṃ yatraiva nirvṛttir-udāra-vṛtta /
conformity with its kind, then, a distinguishable bodily form
develops, wherein, O man of noble conduct,
duḥkhaṃ na hi tad-vimuktaṃ duḥkhaṃ bhaviṣyaty-abhavad
bhaved vā // 16.16 //
exists, right there -- for nowhere else will suffering exist or has
it existed or could it exist.
ca tasya loke tṛṣṇādayo doṣa-gaṇā nimittam /
this, the suffering of doing, in the world, has its cause
in clusters of faults which start with thirsting --
na prakṛtir na kālo nāpi svabhāvo na vidhir-yadṛcchā // 16.17
cause is certainly not in God, nor in primordial matter, nor in time;
nor even in one’s inherent constitution, nor in predestination or
ca kāraṇena lokasya doṣebhya iti pravṛttiḥ /
you must understand how, due to this cause, because of men's faults,
the cycle of doing goes on,
sa-rajas-tamaskā na jāyate vīta-rajas-tamaskaḥ // 16.18 //
that they succumb to death who are afflicted by the dust of the
passions and by darkness; but he is not reborn who is free of dust
sati tatra tatra yānāsanāder-bhavati prayogaḥ /
as the specific desire exists to do this or that, an action like
going or sitting happens;
janma prajānām-iti veditavyam // 16.19 //
in just the same way, by the force of their thirsting living
creatures are reborn -- as is to be observed:
dṛṣṭvā svajātiṣu prīti-parāṇy-atīva /
sentient beings in the grip of attachment, dead set on pleasure among
their own kind;
tair-eva doṣair-iti tāni viddhi // 16.20 //
from their habitual practice of faults, observe them presenting with
those very faults.
ceha yathā viśeṣaḥ /
as the anger, lust, and so on of sufferers of those afflictions give
rise in the present to a personality trait,
janmasv-api naika-rūpo nirvartate kleśa-kṛto viśeṣaḥ //
too in new lives, in various manifestations, does the
affliction-created trait develop:
janmani tīvra-roṣa utpadyate rāgiṇi tīvra-rāgaḥ /
a life dominated by anger arises violent anger, in the lover of
passion arises burning passion,
moha-balādhikaś-ca tad-alpa-doṣe ca tad-alpa-doṣaḥ // 16.22
in one dominated by ignorance arises overwhelming ignorance. In one
who has a lesser fault, again, the lesser fault develops.
hi yādṛk samavaiti sākṣāt tad-āgamād bījam-avaity-atītam /
what fruit is before one's eyes, one knows, from past knowledge of
that fruit, the seed it was in the past.
bīja-prakṛtiṃ ca sākṣād-anāgataṃ tat-phalam-abhyupaiti //
And having identified a seed before
one's eyes, one knows the fruit it may be in the future.
jātiṣu yāsu yasya vairāgyatas-tāsu na jāyate saḥ /
whichever realms of existence a man has ended faults, thanks to that
dispassion he is not born in those realms.
yasya yatra tasyopapattir-vivaśasya tatra // 16.24 //
he remains susceptible to a fault, that is where he makes his
appearance, whether he likes it or not.
naika-vidhasya saumya tṛṣṇādayo hetava ity-avetya /
my friend, with regard to the many forms of becoming, know their
causes to be [the faults] that start with thirsting
duḥkhād yadi nirmumukṣā kārya-kṣayaḥ kāraṇa-saṃkṣayādd
hi // 16.25 //
cut out those [faults], if you wish to be freed from suffering; for
ending of the effect follows from eradication of the cause.
hetu-parikṣayāc-ca śāntaṃ śivaṃ sākṣi-kuruṣva dharmaṃ
the ending of suffering follows from the disappearance of its cause.
Experience that reality for yourself as peace and well-being,
layanaṃ nirodhaṃ sanātanaṃ trāṇam-ahāryam-āryam // 16.26
place of rest, a cessation, an absence of the red taint of thirsting,
a primeval refuge which is irremovable and noble,
jātir-na jarā na mṛtyur-na vyādhayo nāpriya-saṃprayogaḥ /
which there is no becoming, no aging, no dying, no illness, no being
touched by unpleasantness,
priya-viprayogaḥ kṣemaṃ padaṃ naiṣṭhikam-acyutaṃ tat //
No disappointment, and no
separation from what is pleasant: It is an ultimate and
indestructible step, in which to dwell at ease.
yathā nirvṛtim-abhyupeto naivāvaniṃ gacchati nāntarikṣam /
lamp that has gone out reaches neither to the earth nor to the sky,
na kāṃ-cid vidiśaṃ na kāṃ-cit sneha-kṣayāt kevalam-eti
śāntim // 16.28 //
to any cardinal nor to any intermediate point: Because its oil is
spent it reaches nothing but extinction.
kṛtī nirvṛtim-abhyupeto naivāvaniṃ gacchati nāntarikṣam /
the same way, a man of action who has come to quiet reaches neither
to the earth nor to the sky,
na kāṃ-cid vidiśaṃ na kāṃ-cit kleśa-kṣayāt kevalam-eti
śāntim // 16.29 //
to any cardinal nor to any intermediate point: From the ending of his
afflictions he attains nothing but extinction.
'dhigamāya mārgaḥ prajñā-trikalpaḥ praśama-dvikalpaḥ /
means for gaining that end is the path of threefold wisdom and
bhāvanīyo vidhivad budhena śīle śucau tripramukhe sthitena //
It is to be cultivated by a
wakeful person working to principle -- abiding in untainted threefold
samyak saha-kāya-karma yathāvad-ājīva-nayaś-ca śuddhaḥ /
the voice well and the body well in tandem, and making a clean living
in a suitable manner:
trayaṃ vṛtta-vidhau pravṛttaṃ śīlāśrayaṃ
dharma-parigrahāya // 16.31 //
three, pertaining to conduct, are for the mastery, based on
integrity, of one's dharma-duty.
duḥkhādiṣu dṛṣṭir-āryā samyag-vitarkaś-ca parākramaś-ca
insight into suffering and the other truths, along with thinking
straight, and initiative:
trayaṃ jñāna-vidhau pravṛttaṃ prajñāśrayaṃ
kleśa-parikṣayāya // 16.32 //
three, pertaining to know-how, are for dissolution, based on wisdom,
of the afflictions.
satyābhigamāya yuktā samyak smṛtiḥ samyag-atho samādhiḥ /
mindfulness, properly harnessed so as to bring one close to the
truths; and true balance:
dvayaṃ yoga-vidhau pravṛttaṃ śamāśrayaṃ citta-parigrahāya
// 16.33 //
two, pertaining to practice, are for mastery, based on tranquillity,
of the mind.
pratanoti śīlaṃ bījāṅkurān kāla ivātivṛttaḥ /
no more propagates the shoots of affliction than a bygone spring
propagates shoots from seeds.
hi śīle puruṣasya doṣā manaḥ sa-lajjā iva dharṣayanti //
faults, as long as a man's integrity is untainted, venture only
timidly to attack his mind.
viṣkambhayate samādhir-vegān-ivādrir-mahato nadīnām /
balance casts off the afflictions like a mountain casts off the
mighty torrents of rivers.
samādhau hi na dharṣayanti doṣā bhujaṃgā iva mantra-baddhāḥ
// 16.35 //
faults do not attack a man who is standing firm in balanced
stillness: like charmed snakes, they are spellbound.
tv-aśeṣeṇa nihanti doṣāṃs-tīra-drumān prāvṛṣi
wisdom destroys the faults without trace, as a mountain stream in the
monsoon destroys the trees on its banks.
yayā na prabhavanti doṣā vajrāgninevānusṛtena vṛkṣāḥ
// 16.36 //
consumed by it do not stand a chance, like trees in the fiery wake of
pravigāhya mārgaṃ praspaṣṭam-aṣṭāṅgam-ahāryam-āryam
oneself to this path with its three divisions and eight branches --
this straightforward, irremovable, noble path --
hetūn prajahāti doṣān prāpnoti cātyanta-śivaṃ padaṃ tat
// 16.37 /
abandons the faults, which are the causes of suffering, and comes to
that step which is total well-being.
dhṛtir-ārjavaṃ ca hrīr-apramādaḥ praviviktatā ca /
on it are constancy and straightness; modesty, attentiveness, and
tuṣṭir-asaṃgatā ca loka-pravṛttāv-aratiḥ kṣamā ca //
little, contentment, and freedom from forming attachments; no
fondness for worldly activity, and forbearance.
vindati yo hi duḥkhaṃ tasyodbhavaṃ tasya ca yo nirodham /
he who knows suffering as it really is, who knows its starting and
mārgeṇa sa śāntim-eti kalyāṇa-mitraiḥ saha vartamānaḥ //
It is he who reaches peace by the
noble path -- going along with friends in the good.
vyādhito vyādhim-avaiti samyag vyādher-nidānaṃ ca tad-auṣadhaṃ
who fully appreciates his illness, as the illness it is, who sees the
cause of the illness and its remedy:
hi so 'cireṇa mitrair-abhijñair-upacaryamāṇaḥ // 16.40 //
is he who wins, before long, freedom from disease -- attended by
friends in the know.
kuru duḥkha-satye doṣeṣv-api vyādhi-nidāna-saṃjñām /
with regard to the truth of suffering, see suffering as an illness;
with regard to the faults, see the faults as the cause of the
ca nirodha-satye bhaiṣajya-saṃjñām-api mārga-satye // 16.41 //
regard to the truth of stopping, see stopping as freedom from
disease; and with regard to the truth of a path, see a path as a
pravṛttiṃ-parigaccha duḥkhaṃ pravartakān-apy-avagaccha doṣān
therefore, that suffering is doing; witness the faults impelling it
ca tan-nirodhaṃ nivartakaṃ cāpy-avagaccha mārgam // 16.42 //
its stopping as non-doing; and know the path as a turning back.
vāsasi saṃpradīpte satyāvabodhāya matir-vicāryā /
your head and clothes be on fire direct your mind so as to be awake
to the truths.
jagat satya-nayaṃ hy-adṛṣṭvā pradahyate saṃprati dhakṣyate
ca // 16.43 //
in failing to see the purport of the truths, the world has burned, it
is burning now, and it will burn.
yaḥ paśyati nāma-rūpaṃ kṣayīti tad-darśanam-asya samyak /
a man sees a separate bodily form as decrepit, that insight of his is
ca nirvedam-upaiti paśyan nandī-kṣayāc-ca kṣayam-eti rāgaḥ
// 16.44 //
seeing accurately he is disenchanted, and from the ending of
exuberance ends the red taint of passion.
nandī-rajasoḥ kṣayeṇa samyag-vimuktaṃ pravadāmi cetaḥ /
the ending of the duality which is exuberance and gloom, I submit,
his mind is fully set free.
tābhyāṃ na cāsya bhūyaḥ karaṇīyam-asti // 16.45 //
when his mind is fully liberated from that duality, there is nothing
further for him to do.
hi nāma-rūpaṃ tadd-hetum-evāsta-gamaṃ ca tasya /
in him who sees a separate bodily form as it is, and who sees its
origin and passing away,
pasyata eva cāhaṃ bravīmi samyak kṣayam-āsravāṇām // 16.46
the very fact of his knowing and seeing, I predict the complete
eradication of the pollutants.
paraṃ saumya vidhāya vīryaṃ śīghraṃ
my friend garner your energy greatly and strive quickly to put an end
to polluting influences,
nirātmakāṃś-ca dhātūn viśeṣeṇa parīkṣamāṇaḥ //
in particular the elements -- as suffering, as impermanent and as
devoid of self.
hi ṣaḍ bhū-salilānalādīn sāmānyataḥ svena ca lakṣaṇena
in knowing the six elements of earth, water, fire and the rest,
generically, and each as specific to itself,
yo nānyam-avaiti tebhyaḥ so 'tyantikaṃ mokṣam-avaiti tebhyaḥ
// 16.48 //
who knows nothing else but those elements, knows total release from
ca niścitena kālo 'bhyupāyaś-ca parīkṣitavyaḥ /
set on abandoning the afflictions, then, should attend to timing and
'py-akāle hy-anupāyataś-ca bhavaty-anarthāya na tad-guṇāya //
even practice itself, done at the wrong time and relying on wrong
means, makes for disappointment and not for the desired end.
yadi gāṃ duhīta naivāpnuyāt kṣīram-akāla-dohī /
a cow is milked before her calf is born, milking at the wrong time
will yield no milk.
'pi vā syān-na payo labheta mohena śṛṅgād yadi gāṃ duhīta
// 16.50 //
even at the right time no milk will be got if, through ignorance, a
cow is milked by the horn.
kāṣṭhāj-jvalan-ābhikāmo naiva prayatnād-api vanhim-ṛcchet
one who wants fire from damp wood, try as he might, will not get
śuṣkād-api pātanena naivāgnim-āpnoty-anupāya-pūrvam // 16.51
even if he lays down dry wood, he won't get fire from that, with bad
vidhivat parīkṣya yogasya mātrām-api cābhyupāyam /
given due consideration to the time and place as well as to the
extent and method of one's practice,
cātmani saṃpradhārya kāryaḥ prayatno na tu tad-viruddhaḥ //
should, reflecting on one's own strength and weakness, persist in an
effort that is not inconsistent with them.
yat-tu nimittam-uktam-uddhanyamāne hṛdi tan-na sevyam /
said to be "garnering" does not serve when the emotions
hi cittaṃ praśamaṁ na yāti [viś]vāyunā vahnir-iveryamāṇaḥ
// 16.53 //
thus the mind does not come to quiet, like a fire being fanned by the
yat syān-niyataṃ nimittaṃ jātoddhave cetasi tasya kālaḥ /
factor ascertained to be calming has its time when one's mind is
hi cittaṃ praśamaṃ niyacchet pradīpyamāno 'gnir-ivodakena //
thus the mind subsides into quietness, like a blazing fire doused
yan-niyataṃ nimittaṃ sevyaṃ na tac-cetasi līyamāne /
factor ascertained to bring calm does not serve when one's mind is
hi bhūyo layam-eti cittam-anīryamāṇo 'gnir-ivālpa-sāraḥ //
thus the mind sinks further into lifelessness, like a feeble fire
yan-niyataṃ nimittaṃ layaṃ gate cetasi tasya kālaḥ /
factor determined to be garnering, has its time when one's mind is
hi manas-tathā syān-mandāyamāno 'gnir-ivendhanena // 16.56 //
thus the mind becomes fit for work, like a feebly-burning fire plied
nāpi nimittam-iṣṭaṃ layaṃ gate cetasi soddhave vā /
a valid factor when one's mind is either lifeless or excited.
hi tīvraṃ janayed-anartham-upekṣito vyādhir-ivāturasya //
that might engender severe adversity, like the neglected illness of a
nimittaṃ sāmyaṃ gate cetasi tasya kālaḥ /
factor ascertained to conduce to equanimity has its time when one's
mind is in its normal state;
hi kṛtyāya bhavet-prayogo ratho vidheyāśva iva prayātaḥ //
thus one may set about work to be done, like a wagon setting off with
'pi citte maitropasaṃhāra-vidhir-na kāryaḥ /
when the mind is filled with the red joys of passion, direction
towards oneself of loving-kindness is not to be practised;
muhyati maitrayā hi snehaṃ kapha-kṣobha ivopayujya // 16.59 //
a passionate type is stupefied by love, like a sufferer from phlegm
cetasi dhairyam-etya niṣevitavyaṃ tv-aśubhaṃ nimittam /
lies, when the mind is excited by ardour, in resorting to an
hy-evam-upaiti śarma kaphātmako rūkṣam-ivopayujya // 16.60 //
thus a passionate type obtains relief, like a phlegmatic type taking
manasy-udīrṇe na sevitavyaṃ tv-aśubhaṃ nimittam /
the mind is wound up, however, with the fault of malice,
unpleasantness is not the factor to be deployed;
hy-aśubhā vadhāya pittātmanas-tīkṣṇa ivopacāraḥ // 16.61
unpleasantness is destructive to a hating type, as acid treatment is
to a man of bilious nature.
tu citte sevyā sva-pakṣopanayena maitrī /
the mind is agitated by the fault of malice, loving-kindness should
be cultivated, by directing it towards oneself.
hi praśamāya maitrī pittātmanaḥ śīta ivopacāraḥ // 16.62
loving-kindness is calming to a hate-afflicted soul, as cooling
treatment is to the man of bilious nature.
manasaḥ pracāre maitrāśubhā caiva bhavaty-ayogaḥ /
there is wandering of the mind, tied to delusion, both
loving-kindness and unpleasantness are unsuitable,
hi saṃmoham-upaiti bhūyo vāyv-ātmako rūkṣam-ivopanīya //
a deluded man is further deluded by these two, like a windy type
given an astringent.
manasaḥ pravṛttau sevyas-tv-idam-pratyayatā-vihāraḥ /
working of the mind is delusory, one should appreciate the causality
manasy-eṣa hi śānti-mārgo vāyv-ātmake snigdha ivopacāraḥ //
this is a path to peace when the mind is bewildered, like treating a
wind condition with oil.
hi yathā suvarṇaṃ suvarṇa-kāro dhamatīha kāle /
gold in the mouth of a furnace, a goldsmith in this world blows it at
the proper time,
pariprokṣayate jalena krameṇa kāle samupekṣate ca // 16.65 //
it with water at the proper time, and gradually, at the proper time,
he leaves it be.
suvarṇaṃ hi dhamann-akāle jale kṣipan saṃśameyed-akāle /
he might burn the gold by blowing at the wrong time, he might make it
unworkable by plunging it into water at the wrong time,
cāpi samyak paripākam-enaṃ nayed-akāle samupekṣamāṇaḥ //
he would not bring it to full perfection if at the wrong time he were
just to leave it be.
praśamasya caiva tathaiva kāle samupekṣaṇasya /
for garnering as also for calming, as also when appropriate for
leaving well alone,
nimittaṃ manasā tv-avekṣyaṃ nāśo hi yatno 'py-anupāya-pūrvaḥ
// 16.67 //
should readily attend to the appropriate factor; because even
diligence is destructive when accompanied by a wrong approach."
ca nyāyaṃ ca tasmai sugato babhāṣe /
on retreat from muddling through, and on the principle to come back
to, the One Who Went Well spoke to Nanda;
tat-tac-caritaṃ viditvā vitarka-hānāya vidhīn-uvāca // 16.68
And knowing the varieties of behaviour,
he detailed further the directions for abandoning ideas.
bhiṣak pitta-kaphānilānāṃ ya eva kopaṃ samupaiti doṣaḥ /
as, for a disorder of bile, phlegm, or wind -- for whatever disorder
of the humours has manifested the symptoms of disease --
tasyaiva vidhiṃ vidhatte vyadhatta doṣeṣu tathaiva buddhaḥ //
doctor prescribes a course of treatment to cure that very disorder;
so did the Buddha prescribe for the faults:
kalpena sacen-na hanyāt sv-abhyasta-bhāvād-asubhān vitarkān /
may not be possible, following a single method, to kill off bad ideas
that habit has so deeply entrenched;
dvitīyaṃ kramam-ārabheta na tv-eva heyo guṇavān prayogaḥ //
that case, one should commit to a second course but never give up the
balīyasaḥ kleśa-gaṇasya caiva /
of the instinct-led accumulation, from time without beginning, of the
powerful mass of afflictions,
prayogasya ca duṣkaratvāc-chettuṃ na śakyāḥ sahasā hi doṣāḥ
// 16.71 //
because true practice is so difficult to do, the faults cannot be cut
off all at once.
yathāṇyā vipulāṇir-anyā nirvāhyate tad-viduṣā nareṇa /
as a deep splinter, by means of the point of another sharp object, is
removed by a man skilled in that task,
nimittaṃ kṣipen-nimittāntara-sevanena // 16.72 //
an unpromising stimulus may be dispensed with through deployment of a
again, because of your personal inexperience, a bad idea might not
sa tad-doṣa-parīkṣaṇena sa-śvāpado mārga ivādhvagena //
should abandon it by observing the fault in it, as a traveller
abandons a path on which there is a wild beast.
kṣudh-ārto 'pi viśeṇa pṛktaṃ jijīviṣur-necchati
man who wishes to live, even when starving, declines to eat poisoned
doṣāvaham-ity-avetya jahāti vidvān-aśubhaṃ nimittam // 16.74
observing that it brings with it a fault, a wise person leaves alone
an unpleasant stimulus.
doṣataḥ paśyati yo hi doṣaṃ kas-taṃ tato vārayituṃ
a man does not see a fault as a fault, who is able to restrain him
guṇe paśyati yaś-ca yatra sa vāryamāṇo 'pi tataḥ prayāti
// 16.75 //
when a man sees the good in what is good, he goes towards it despite
hi kula-prasūtā manaḥ-pracārair-aśubhaiḥ pravṛtaiḥ /
those brought up well are ashamed of unpleasant occurrences going on
in the mind,
manasvīva yuvā vapuṣmān-acākṣuṣair-aprayatair-viṣaktaiḥ
// 16.76 //
one who is bright, young and good-looking is ashamed of unsightly,
ill-arranged objects hanging around his neck.
leśato 'pi tiṣṭheyur-evākuśalā vitarkāḥ /
though they are being shaken off, a trace persists of unhelpful
sevyo vidhir-vismaraṇāya teṣām // 16.77 //
should resort to different tasks, such as study or physical work, as
a means of consigning those thoughts to oblivion.
vicakṣaṇena kāya-klamo vāpi niṣevitavyaḥ /
clear-sighted person should even sleep or resort to physical
tv-eva saṃcintyam-asan-nimittaṃ yatrāvasaktasya bhaved-anarthaḥ
// 16.78 //
should never dwell on a bad stimulus, pending on which might be an
hi bhīto niśi taskarebhyo dvāraṃ priyebhyo 'pi na dātum-icchet
just as a man afraid of thieves in the night would not open his door
even to friends,
saṃharati prayogaṃ samaṃ śubhasyāpy-aśubhasya doṣaiḥ //
does a wise man withhold consent equally to the doing of anything bad
or anything good that involves the faults.
prakārair-api yady-upāyair-nivāryamāṇā na parāṅmukhāḥ
though fended off by such means, faults do not turn back,
yathā-śthūla-nibarhaṇena suvarṇa-doṣā iva te praheyāḥ //
eliminated in order of their grossness, they must be driven out like
impurities from gold.
tīkṣṇāt kāma-prayogāt parikhidyamānaḥ /
as a man who feels depressed following a torrid love affair
naraḥ saṃśrayate tathaiva prājñena doṣeṣv-api vartitavyam
// 16.81 //
refuge in activities like quick marching, so should a wise person
proceed with regard to the faults.
their counteragent cannot be found and unreal fancies do not subside,
gṛhe bhujaṃgā iva
nādhivāsyāḥ // 16.82 //
must not for a moment be left unchecked: no whiff of them should be
tolerated, as if they were snakes in the house.
'pi dantaṃ praṇidhāya kāmaṃ tālv-agram-utpīḍya ca
tooth against tooth, if you will, press the tongue forward and up
against the palate,
cittaṃ parigṛhya cāpi kāryaḥ prayatno na tu te 'nuvartyāḥ
// 16.83 //
grip the mind with the mind -- make an effort, but do not yield to
citraṃ yadi vīta-moho vanaṃ gataḥ svastha-manā na muhyet /
it any wonder that a man without any delusions should not become
deluded when he has contentedly repaired to the forest?
hṛdi tan-nimittair-na kṣobhyate yaḥ sa kṛtī sa dhīraḥ //
a man who is not shaken when challenged to the core by the stimuli of
the aforementioned [ideas, thoughts, and fancies]:
he is a man of action; he is a steadfast man.
pūrvaṃ viśodhayānena nayena mārgam /
in order to make the noble truths your own, first clear a path
according to this plan of action,
śatru-vinigrahārthaṃ rājeva lakṣmīm-ajitāṃ jigīṣan //
a king going on campaign to subdue his foes, wishing to conquer
śivāni yogānukūlāny-ajaneritāni /
salubrious wilds that surround us are suited to practice and not
thronged with people.
kṛtvā praviveka-mātraṃ kleśa-prahāṇāya bhajasva mārgam //
the body with ample solitude, cut a path for abandoning the
vimalo 'tha rādhaḥ /
Nanda, Kṛmila, Aniruddha, Tiṣya, Upasena, Vimala, Rādha,
dhautaki-moharājau kātyāyana-dravya-pilindavatsāḥ // 16.87 //
Uttara, Dhautaki, Moha-rāja, Kātyāyana, Dravya, Pilinda-vatsa,
Bhadrāyaṇa, Sarpa-dāsa, Subhūti, Go-datta, Sujāta, Vatsa,
bhadrajid-aśvajic-ca śroṇaś-ca śoṇaś-ca sa-koṭikarṇaḥ
// 16.88 //
Bhadrajit, Aśvajit, Śrona and Sona Koṭikarna,
Ajita, the mothers of Nandaka and Nanda, Upāli, Vāgīśa, Yaśas,
valkali-rāṣṭrapālau sudarśana-svāgata-meghikāś-ca // 16.89
Mahāhvaya, Valkalin, Rāṣṭra-pāla,
Sudarśana, Svāgata and Meghika,
kapphinaḥ kāśyapa auruvilvo mahā-mahākāśyapa-tiṣya-nandāḥ
Kāśyapa of Uruvilvā, the great Mahā-kāśyapa, Tiṣya, Nanda,
pūrṇaś-ca sa pūrṇakaś-ca śonāparāntaś-ca sa pūrṇa eva
// 16.90 //
and Pūrṇa as well as Pūrṇaka and Pūrṇa Śonāparānta,
son of Śāradvatī, Subāhu, Cunda, Kondeya, Kāpya, Bhṛgu,
revata-kauṣṭhilau ca maudgalya-gotraś-ca gavāṃpatiś-ca //
Śaivala, Revata and Kauṣṭhila, and he of the Maudgalya clan
vikramaṃ yoga-vidhāv-akurvaṃs-tam-eva śīghraṃ vidhivat
quick to show the courage that they have shown in their practice,
working to principle.
padaṃ prāpsyasi tair-avāptaṃ sukhāvṛtais-tvaṃ niyataṃ
yaśaś-ca // 16.92 //
Then you will
assuredly take the step that they took and will realise the splendour
that they realised.
yathā syat kaṭukaṃ rasena tac-copayuktaṃ madhuraṃ vipāke /
as a fruit may have flesh that is bitter to the taste and yet is
sweet when eaten ripe,
vīryaṃ kaṭukaṃ śrameṇa tasyārtha-siddhau madhuro vipākaḥ
// 16.93 //
heroic effort, through the struggle it involves, is bitter and yet,
in accomplishment of the aim, its mature fruit is sweet.
paraṃ kārya-kṛtau hi mūlaṃ vīryād-ṛte kācana nāsti
energy is paramount: for, in doing what needs to be done, it is the
foundation; without directed energy there is no accomplishment at
vīryād-iha sarva-saṃpan-nirvīryatā cet sakalaś-ca pāpmā //
success in this world arises from directed energy -- and in the
absence of directed energy wrongdoing is rampant.
gaining of what is yet to be gained, and certain loss of what has
kṛpaṇam-adhikebhyaḥ paribhavaḥ /
with low self-esteem, wretchedness, the scorn of superiors,
lack of spirit, and the breakdown of learning, restraint and
nir-vīryāṇāṃ bhavati vinipātaś-ca bhavati // 16.95 //
men without directed energy a great fall awaits.
śrutvā śakto yad-ayam-abhivṛddhiṃ na labhate
a capable person hears the guiding principle but realises no growth,
dharmaṃ jñātvā yad-upari nivāsaṃ na labhate /
he knows the most excellent method but realises no upward repose,
tyaktvā muktau yad-ayam-upaśāntiṃ na labhate /
he leaves home but in freedom realises no peace:
kausīdyaṃ bhavati puruṣasyātra na ripuḥ // 16.96 //
cause is the laziness in him and not an enemy.
yadi khanati gāṃ vāri labhate /
man obtains water if he digs the ground with unflagging exertion,
vyāmathnan jvalanam-araṇibhyāṃ janayati /
produces fire from fire-sticks by continuous twirling.
yoge tu dhruvam-upalabhante śrama-phalaṃ
those are sure to reap the fruit of their effort whose energies are
harnessed to practice,
nityaṃ yāntyo girim-api hi bhindanti saritaḥ // 16.97 //
rivers that flow swiftly and constantly cut through even a mountain.
gāṃ paripālya ca śrama-śatair-aśnoti sasya-śriyaṃ
ploughing and protecting the soil with great pains, a farmer gains a
bounteous crop of corn;
pravigāhya sāgara-jalaṃ ratna-śriyā krīḍati /
striving to plumb the ocean's waters, a diver revels in a bounty of
coral and pearls;
seeing off with arrows the endeavour of rival kings, a king enjoys
kuru śāntaye viniyataṃ vīrye hi sarva-rddhayaḥ // 16.98 //
direct your energy in pursuit of peace, for in directed energy,
undoubtedly, lies all growth."
mahākāvya ārya-satya-vākhyāno nāma ṣoḍaśaḥ sargaḥ /
16th Canto in the epic poem Handsome Nanda, titled "Exposition
of the Noble Truths."