dvijo bāla ivāpta-vedaḥ kṣipraṃ vaṇik prāpta ivāpta-lābhaḥ
so like a young initiate who mastered the Vedas, like a trader who
turned a quick profit,
ca rājanya ivārisainyaṃ nandaḥ kṛtārtho gurum-abhyagacchat
// 18.1 //
like a royal warrior who conquered a hostile army, a success, Nanda
approached the Guru.
sukhaṃ jñāna-samāpti-kāle gurur-hi śiṣyasya guroś-ca
it is pleasant, at a time when wisdom has been fully realized, for
teacher to see student, and for student to see teacher,
saphalo mayīti yato didṛkṣāsya munau babhūva // 18.2 //
thinking, "Your toil has rewarded me"; for which same
reason the wish to see Nanda arose in the Sage.
hi yenādhigato viśeṣas-tasyottamāṅge 'rhati kartum-iḍyām /
is a noble person obliged to pay respect, to his face, to the one
through whom he has acquired distinction.
sarāgo 'pi kṛtajña-bhāvāt prakṣīṇamānaḥ kim-u vītarāgaḥ
// 18.3 //
a noble person who retains the taint of redness is so obliged, out of
gratitude: How much more is one with no red taint, all pride having
hi bhaktis-tato 'sya sā tiṣṭhati rūḍha-mūlā /
when devotion springs from an agenda or desire, there it remains
yasya tu bhakti-rāgas-tasya prasādo hṛdayāvagāḍhaḥ // 18.4
when a person has love and devotion for dharma, that person is
steeped to the core in tranquillity.
kanakāvadātas-tataḥ sa mūrdhnā gurave praṇeme/
so, a glowing gold in his yellow-red robe, he bowed his head to the
pallava-tāmra-rāgaḥ puṣpojjvala-śrīr-iva karṇikāraḥ //
with an outburst of ruddy shoots, and a glorious blaze of flowers,
nodding in the wind.
śiṣya-guṇasya caiva mahā-muneḥ śāstṛ-guṇasya caiva /
as a manifestation of his individual merit as a student and, indeed,
of the great Sage's merit as a teacher,
sa na māna-hetoḥ svāṃ kārya-siddhiṃ kathayām-babhūva //
not out of pride, he described his own accomplishment of the work
that has to be done:
dṛṣṭi-śalyo hṛdayāvagāḍhaḥ prabho bhṛśaṃ
mām-atudat su-tīkṣṇaḥ /
splinter of a view, that had penetrated to my core, O Mighty One, was
paining me intensely, being very sharp;
me sa samuddhṛtaḥ śalya-hṛteva śalyaḥ // 18.7 //
the jaws of the pincers of your words -- by means of a means and by
way of a mouth
-- it was pulled out of me as a splinter is removed by a surgeon.
yena chinnaḥ sa niḥsaṃśaya saṃśayo me/
doubt, by which I fell into a state of hesitant questioning, O One
Beyond Doubt, has been eradicated in me --
satpatham-āgato 'smi sudeśikasyeva pathi pranaṣṭaḥ // 18.8 //
your teaching I have arrived at a true path like a straggler, under a
good guide, getting on the road.
darpeṇa kandarpa-viṣaṃ mayāsīt /
senses ruled by relishing, I madly drank the drug of love;
hataṃ tvad-vacanāgadena viṣaṃ vināśīva mahāgadena // 18.9
action was blocked in me by the antidote of your words, as a deadly
poison is by a great remedy.
gataṃ janma nirasta-janman saddharma-caryām-uṣito 'smi samyak /
is over, O Refuter of Rebirth! I am dwelling as one with observance
of true dharma.
kṛtaṃ me kṛta-kārya kāryaṃ lokeṣu bhūto 'smi na
loka-dharmā // 18.10 //
was for me to do, O Doer of the Necessary! is totally done. I am
present in the world without being of the world.
vyañjana-cāru-sāsnāṃ saddharma-dugdhāṃ pratibhāna-śṛṅgām
drunk from the milk-cow of your voice, whose udder is
loving-kindness, whose lovely dewlap is figures of speech, who is
milked for true dharma, and whose horns are boldness of expression,
gāṃ sādhu nipīya tṛptas-tṛṣeva gām-uttama vatsa-varṇaḥ
// 18.11 //
am properly satisfied, O Most Excellent One, like a little calf that,
because of thirst, has drunk milk.
mamāyaṃ tan-me samāsena mune nibodha /
so, O Sage, hear from me in brief what, through seeing, I have made
kāmaṃ viditaṃ tavaitat svaṃ tūpacāraṃ pravivakṣur-asmi
// 18.12 //
you know it anyway, O All-knowing One, still I wish to mention how I
have worked on myself.
'pi santo vimumukṣavo hi śrutvā vimokṣāya nayaṃ parasya /
true freedom-loving people (however individual they are) when they
hear of another person's plan that led to freedom
rogād-iva rogavantas-tenaiva mārgeṇa sukhaṃ ghaṭante // 18.13
happily work at freedom via that same path, like sick men hearing the
plan of one who became free from a disease.
janmani vedmi dhātūn nātmānam-urvyādiṣu teṣu kiṁ cit /
a birth, I perceive earth and the other elements, but in earth and
those other elements, I perceive no self at all.
na me 'sti saktir bahiś-ca kāyena samā matir-me // 18.14 //
that basis, there is no attachment in me to those elements; my
orientation is equal with regard to my body and outside.
rūpa-prabhṛtīn daśārdhān paśyāmi yasmāc capalān-asārān /
the five skandhas,
beginning with the organized body, I see to be inconstant and without
vadhātmakāṁś-ca tasmād vimukto 'smy-aśivebhya ebhyaḥ //
well as unreal and life-negating; therefore I am free from those
paśyāmy-udayaṁ vyayaṁ ca sarvāsv-avasthāsv-aham-indriyāṇāṁ
I see for myself an arising and a vanishing in all situations in the
realms of the senses,
nirātmakeṣu duḥkheṣu me teṣv-api nāsti saṁgaḥ // 18.16
again, there is in me no clinging to those aforementioned elements
which are impermanent, impersonal, and unsatisfactory.
lokaṁ sama-janma-niṣṭhaṁ paśyāmi niḥsāram-asac-ca sarvaṁ
on the grounds that I see the whole world as emerging and in the same
moment passing away, as having no essential meaning and not being as
it ought to be,
dhiyā me manasā vibaddham asmīti me neñjitam-asti yena // 18.17
these grounds, because of meditation, the world is bound fast by my
mind in such a way that there is no flicker in me of 'I am.'
naikavidha-prasaṁge yato 'ham-āhāra-vidhāv-asaktaḥ /
is all manner of indulging in the four sorts of food, but since I am
not attached to how I take food,
tatra tribhyo vimukto 'smi tato bhavebhyaḥ // 18.18 //
when it comes to food I am not congealed or trussed up, I am free, on
that score, from three kinds of becoming.
dṛṣṭa-śrutādau vyavahāra-dharme /
the daily round of dharma-practice since I am neither certain about
nor bound in mind to visual, auditory and other kinds of perception,
samātmānugataś-ca tatra tasmād visaṃyoga-gato 'smi muktaḥ //
since through that dharma-round I am graced by trailing equanimity,
on that account I am detached and am free."
guru-bāhumānyāt sarveṇa kāyena sa gāṃ nipannaḥ /
speaking thus, he prostrated himself on the ground with his whole
body, out of deep appreciation for the Guru;
lohita-candanākto haimo mahā-stambha ivābabhāse //18.20 //
looked like a great fallen column of gold tinged with red sandalwood.
pramādāt prasṛtasya pūrvaṁ śrutvā dhṛtiṁ vyākaraṇaṁ
ca tasya /
after listening to him who had emerged already out of heedlessness,
after hearing his firmness and his testimony
cānugataṁ prasādaṁ meghasvaras-taṁ munir-ābabhāṣe
a clarity consistent with the gist of dharma, the Sage boomed at him
like a thundercloud:
dharme sthita śiṣya-juṣṭe kiṃ pādayor-me patito 'si murdhnā
who stands firm in the dharma which is loved by those who study it,
stand up! Why are you fallen with your head at my feet?
me na tathā praṇāmo dharme yathaiṣā pratipattir-eva //18.22 //
prostration does not honour me so much as this surefootedness in the
su-pravrajito jitātmann aiśvaryam-apy-ātmani yena labdham /
conqueror of yourself, you have truly gone forth, since you have
thereby gained sovereignty over yourself.
pravrajanaṃ hi sādhu calātmano na tv-ajitendriyasya //18.23 //
in a person who has conquered himself, going forth has worked;
whereas in an impulsive person whose senses remain unconquered, it
śaucena pareṇa yukto vāk-kāya-cetāṁsi śucīni yat-te /
you are possessed of purity of the highest order, in that your voice,
body, and mind are untainted,
punaś-cāprayatāṁ-asaumyāṁ yat-saumya no vekṣyasi
garbha-śayyām // 18.24 //
in that, henceforward, my gentle friend, you will not again be
confined in the ungentle womb of unready slumber.
śrutavac-chrutaṃ tac-chrutānurūpaṃ pratipadya dharmaṁ /
ears open to the truth which is replete with listening, and with
purpose, today you stand surefooted in the dharma, in a manner that
befits the listening tradition.
vipratipadyamāno nindyo hi nirvīrya ivāttaśastraḥ // 18.25 //
a man equipped with listening ears who is wavering is like a
swordsman lacking valour: he is worthy of blame.
dhṛtis-te 'viṣayātmakasya yat-tvaṃ matiṃ
What firmness in you, who is a slave to objects no more, in that you
have willed the means of liberation.
niṣṭhām-iti bāliśo hi janma-kṣayāt trāsam-ihābhyupaiti //
facing the end of existence in this world and thinking 'I will be
finished,' it is a fool who gives in to a state of quivering
durāpaḥ kṣaṇa-saṃnipāto nāyaṃ kṛto moha-vaśena moghaḥ
this meeting with the present moment, which is so hard to come by, is
not being wasted under the sway of ignorance.
duḥkhena gato hy-adhastāt kūrmo yugacchidra ivārṇavasthaḥ //
a man who has been down goes up with difficulty, like a turtle to a
hole in a yoke, in the foaming sea.
māraṃ yudhi durnivāram adyāsi loke raṇa-śīrṣa-śūraḥ /
conquered Māra, who is so hard to stop in battle, today, at the
forefront of the fight, you are a hero among men.
'py-aśūraḥ sa hi veditavyo doṣair amitrair-iva hanyate yaḥ //
even a hero is not recognized as a hero who is beaten by the foe-like
rāgāgnim-udīrṇam-adya diṣṭyā sukhaṃ svapsyasi vītadāhaḥ
having extinguished the flaming fire of redness, happily, you will
sleep well, free of fever.
hi śete śayane 'py-udāre kleśāgninā cetasi dahyamānaḥ //
even on a fabulous bed he sleeps badly who is being burned in his
mind by the fires of affliction.
dravya-madena pūrvam adyāsi tṛṣṇoparamāt samṛddhaḥ /
used markedly to be mad about possessions; today, because you have
stopped thirsting, you are rich.
satarṣaḥ puruṣo hi loke tāvat samṛddho 'pi sadā daridraḥ
// 18.30 //
as long as a man in the world thirsts, however rich he may be, he is
tava yukta-rūpaṃ śuddhodano me nṛ-patiḥ piteti /
you may fittingly proclaim that King Śuddhodana is your father.
dharmāt pitṛbhir-nipātād aślāghanīyo hi kulāpadeśaḥ //
it is not commendable for a backslider, after falling from the dharma
alighted on by ancestors, to proclaim his lineage.
śāntiṃ paramām-upeto nistīrṇa-kāntāra ivāpta-sāraḥ /
great it is that you have reached the deepest tranquillity, like a
man making it through a wasteland and gaining possession of treasure.
hi saṃsāra-gato bhayārto yathaiva kāntāra-gatas-tathaiva //
everybody in the flux of saṁsāra is afflicted by fear, just like a
man in a wasteland.
bhaikṣa-caraṃ vinītaṃ drakṣyāmi nandaṃ nibhṛtaṃ
shall I see Nanda settled, given over to the living of a forest
purastāt-tvayi me didṛkṣā tathāsi diṣṭyā mama darśanīyaḥ
// 18.33 //
thinking, I had harboured from the start the desire to see you thus.
What a wonderful sight you are for me to behold!
'pi hi darśanīyaḥ sv-alaṃkṛtaḥ śreṣṭhatamai-guṇaiḥ
even an unlovely sort is a sight to behold when he is well-adorned
with his own best features.
parīto malinī-karais-tu sudarśanīyo 'pi virūpa eva //18.34 //
a man who is full of the befouling faults, strikingly beautiful man
though he may be, is truly ugly.
prakṛṣṭā tava buddhimattā kṛtsnaṃ yayā te
in you today is the real wisdom by which you have done, totally, the
work you had to do on yourself.
hi nāsti buddhir-notpadyate śreyasi yasya buddhiḥ // 18.35 //
even a highly educated man lacks wisdom, if wisdom fails to show in
his practice of a better way.
janasya madhye nimīlitasyāpi tathaiva cakṣuḥ /
it is with seeing, among people with eyes open and with eyes closed.
yasya hi nāsti cakṣuś-cakṣur-na tasyāsti sacakṣuṣo 'pi //
when a man lacks sight that is packed with intuition, though he has
eyes, the Eye is not present in him.
ārtaḥ kṛṣyādibhiḥ khedam upaiti lokaḥ /
by calamity, stung to do something to combat suffering, the world
exhausts itself with work like ploughing;
āgacchati tac ca bhūyo jñānena yasyādya kṛtas-tvayāntaḥ //
yet it is ceaselessly re-visited by that suffering, to which, using
what you know, you today have put an end.
na me syāt sukham-eva me syād-iti pravṛttaḥ satataṃ hi lokaḥ
in the world are impelled ever forward by thinking
might be for me no hardship, just happiness....'
vetti tac-caiva tathā yathā syāt prāptaṃ tvayādyāsulabhaṃ
yathāvat // 18.38 //
yet the world does not know a means whereby that happiness might come
to be -- that rarely attained happiness which you today have properly
sthira-buddhi-cittas-tathāgatenābhihito hitāya /
the Tathāgata told him this and more for his benefit Nanda remained
firm in his judgement and thinking
nindāsu ca nir-vyapekṣaḥ kṛtāñjalir-vākyam-uvāca nandaḥ
// 18.39 //
was indifferent to plaudits or criticisms. With hands joined, he
spoke these words:
mayi darśiteyaṃ /
how particular, O Seer of Particularities, is this compassion that
you have shown to me!
bhagavan-nimagnas-trāto 'smi saṃsāra-bhayād-akāmaḥ //18.40 //
I who was sunk, Glorious One, in the mire of love have been a
reluctant refugee from the terror of saṁsāra.
tvayā śreyasi daiśikena pitrā phala-sthena tathaiva mātrā /
not set free by you, a brother, a guide along a better way, a
fruitful father, and equally a mother,
'bhaviṣyaṃ yadi na vyamokṣyaṃ sārthāt paribhraṣṭa
ivākṛtārthaḥ // 18.41 //
would be done for; like a straggler dropped from a caravan, I would
not have made it.
tuṣṭasya sukho viveko vijñāta-tattvasya parīkṣakasya /
is sweet for one who is calm and contented, who looks into and has
learned what is.
ca nir-madasya sukhaṃ virāgatvam-asakta-buddheḥ // 18.42 //
for one who is sober and shorn of conceits, for one who is detached
in his decision-making, dispassion is a pleasure.
hi tattvaṃ parigamya samyaṅ-nirdhūya doṣān-adhigamya śāntim
so, through squarely realising what is, through shaking off faults
and coming to quiet,
nāśramaṃ samprati cintayāmi na taṃ janaṃ nāpsaraso na devān
// 18.43 //
worry now neither about my own place, nor about the person there, nor
nor about gods.
hi bhuktvā śuci śāmikaṃ sukhaṃ na me manaḥ kāṃkṣati
kāmajaṃ sukham /
now that I have tasted this pure, peaceful happiness, my mind no
longer hankers after happiness born of desires --
divaukaso bhuktavataḥ sudhām-iva // 18.44 //
as the costliest earthly fare cannot entice a god who has supped the
'ndha-vijñāna-nimīlitaṃ jagat paṭāntare paśyati nottamaṃ
the world has its eyes closed by blind unconsciousness; it does not
see utmost happiness in a different robe.
vyapāsya hi śramaṃ tathā kāma-sukhārtham-ṛcchati // 18.45 //
away lasting inner happiness, it exhausts itself so, in pursuit of
hi ratnākaram-etya durmatir-vihāya ratnāny-asato maṇīn haret /
just as a fool, having made it to a jewel mine, might leave the
jewels and carry off inferior crystals,
saṃbodhi-sukhaṃ tathottamaṃ śramaṃ vrajet
kāma-sukhopalabdhaye // 18.46 //
would one reject the highest happiness of full awakening and struggle
to gain sensual gratification.
hi sattveṣv-atimaitra-cetasas-tathāgatasyānujighṛkṣutā parā
high indeed, then, is the order of that desire to favour living
beings which the Tathāgata has, overflowing with benevolence:
yad-dhyāna-sukhaṃ mune paraṃ parasya duḥkhoparamāya khidyase
// 18.47 //
O Sage, you throw away the highest-order happiness of meditation and
are consumed by your effort to stop others suffering.
nu śakyaṃ pratikartum-adya kiṃ gurau hitaiṣiṇy-anukampake
today could I possibly repay you, my compassionate Guru whose desire
is others' welfare,
yena bhavārṇavād-ahaṃ mahārṇavāc-cūrṇita-naur-ivormibhiḥ
// 18.48 //
whom I was taken totally up and out of the foaming sea of becoming,
like a man out of a great ocean when his boat is being battered by
munis-tasya niśamya hetumat prahīṇa-sarvāsrava-sūcakaṃ vacaḥ
the Sage, hearing his well-founded words which signified the removal
of all pollutants,
babhāṣe vadatām-anuttamo yad-arhati śrīghana eva bhāṣituṃ
// 18.49 //
as the Very Best of Speakers, these lines that none but a buddha,
being 'Sheer Radiance,' should voice:
kṛtārthaḥ paramārthavit kṛtī tvam-eva
a man of action who got the job done and who knows the primary task,
none but you, O crafty man!, should express this affirmation --
kāntāram-avāpta-sādhanaḥ su-daiśikasyeva kṛtaṃ mahāvaṇik
// 18.50 //
a great trader, having crossed a wasteland and got the goods, who
affirms the work of a good guide.
buddhaṃ nara-damya-sārathiṃ kṛtī yathārhann-upaśānta-mānasaḥ
arhat, a man of action whose mind has come to quiet, knows the Buddha
as a charioteer of human steeds who needed taming:
dṛṣṭa-satyo 'pi tathāvabudhyate pṛthag-janaḥ kiṃbata
buddhimān-api // 18.51 //
even a truth-seer appreciates the Buddha in this manner: how much
less does an ordinary person, however intelligent he may be?
parimukta-cetasas-tavaiva ceyaṃ sadṛśī kṛtajñatā /
gratitude is fitting, again, in none but you whose mind has been
liberated from the dust of the passions and from darkness.
jagaty-avasthite kṛtajña-bhāvo hi kṛtajña durlabhaḥ // 18.52
while dust prevails in the world, O man of gratitude! real gratitude
is a rare state of being.
dharmānvayato yataś-ca te mayi prasādo 'dhigame ca kauśalam /
possessor of dharma! Since, because of abiding by dharma, you have
skill in making it your own and quiet confidence in me,
'sti bhūyas-tvayi me vivakṣitaṃ nato hi bhaktaś-ca
niyogam-arhasi // 18.53 //
have something else to say to you. For you are surrendered and
devoted, and up to the task.
'si parāṃ gatiṃ gato na te 'sti kiṁ-cit karaṇīyam-aṇv-api
the transcendent walk, you have done the work that needed to be done:
in you, there is not the slightest thing left to work on.
saumya carānukampayā vimokṣayan kṛcchra-gatān parān-api //
now on, my friend, go with compassion, freeing up others who are
pulled down into their troubles.
naro 'dhamo vimadhyamas-tūbhaya-laukikīṃ kriyām /
lowest sort of man only ever sets to work for an object in this
world. But a man in the middle does work both for this world and for
the world to come.
phalāya madhyamo viśiṣṭa-dharmā punar-apravṛttaye // 18.55
man in the middle, I repeat, works for a result in the future. The
superior type, however, tends towards abstention from positive
'pi mataḥ sa tūttamo ya uttamaṃ dharmam-avāpya naiṣṭhikam /
deemed to be higher than the highest in this world is he who, having
realized the supreme ultimate dharma,
pariśramaṃ śamaṃ parebhyo 'py-upadeṣṭum-icchati // 18.56 /
without worrying about the trouble to himself, to teach tranquillity
tasmād-iha kāryam-ātmanaḥ kuru sthirātman para-kāryam-apy-atho
forgetting the work that needs to be done in this world on the self,
do now, stout soul, what can be done for others.
sattveṣu tamo-vṛtātmasu śruta-pradīpo niśi dhāryatām-ayam
// 18.57 //
beings who are wandering in the night, their minds shrouded in
darkness, let the lamp of this transmission be carried.
tāvat puri vismito janas-tvayi sthite kurvati dharma-deśanāḥ /
let the astonished people in the city say, while you are standing
firm, voicing dharma-directions,
batāścaryam-idaṃ vimuktaye karoti rāgī yad-ayaṃ kathām-iti
// 18.58 //
What a wonder this is, that he who was a man of passion is preaching
hi saṃśrutya tava sthiraṃ mano
surely, when she hears of your steadfast mind with its chariots
turned back from sundry objects,
sāpi tavānukurvatī kariṣyate strīṣu virāgiṇīḥ kathāḥ
// 18.59 //
wife following your example will also talk, to women at home, the
talk of dispassion.
parama-dhṛtau niviṣṭa-tattve bhavana-gatā na hi raṃsyate
dhruvaṃ sā /
with you showing constancy of the highest order, as you get to the
bottom of what is, she surely will not enjoy life in the palace,
śama-damātmake vivikte matir-iva kāma-sukhaiḥ parīkṣakasya //
as the mind of an enlightened man does not enjoy sensual pleasures
when his mental state is tranquil and controlled, and his thinking is
detached and distinct."
spoke the Worthy One, the instructor whose compassion was of the
vacaś-ca caraṇau ca samaṃ gṛhītvā /
words and equally whose feet Nanda had accepted, using his head;
at ease in himself, his heart at peace, his task ended,
pratiyayau vimadaḥ karīva // 18.61 //
left the Sage's side like an elephant free of rut.
samaye viveśa sa puraṃ dṛṣṭīr-janasyākṣipan
the occasion arose he entered the town for begging and attracted the
samaḥ svasthendriyo nispṛhaḥ /
impartial towards gain, loss, comfort, discomfort, and the like and
with his senses composed, he was free of longing;
cakāra tatra ca kathāṃ kāle janāyārthine
being there, in the moment, he talked of liberation to people so
parān paribhavann-ātmānam-utkarṣayan // 18.62 //
putting down others on a wrong path or raising himself up.
vyupaśāntaye na rataye mokṣārtha-garbhā kṛtiḥ
work is pregnant with the purpose of release: it is for cessation,
not for titillation;
grahaṇārtham-anya-manasāṃ kāvyopacārāt kṛtā /
is wrought out of the figurative expression of kāvya poetry in order
to capture an audience whose minds are on other things --
kṛtam-anyad-atra hi mayā tat-kāvya-dharmāt kṛtaṃ
what I have written here not pertaining to liberation, I have written
in accordance with the conventions of kāvya poetry.
tiktam-ivauṣadhaṃ madhu-yutaṃ hṛdyaṃ kathaṃ syād-iti //
is through asking myself how the bitter pill might be made pleasant
to swallow, like bitter medicine mixed with something sweet.
lokaṃ viṣaya-rati-paraṃ mokṣāt pratihataṃ
in general, that the world is moved primarily by fondness for objects
and is repelled by liberation,
tattvaṃ kathitam-iha mayā mokṣaḥ param-iti /
for whom liberation is paramount have told it here like it is, using
poem as a pretext.
śāmikaṃ yat-tad-avahitam-ito grāhyaṃ na lalitaṃ
aware of the deceit, take from (this verb-rooted dust)
what pertains to peace and not to idle pleasure.
dhātu-jebhyo niyatam-upakaraṃ cāmīkaram-iti // 18.64 //
elemental dust, assuredly, shall yield up serviceable
mahākāvya ājñā-vyākaraṇo nāmaṣṭādaśaḥ sargaḥ /
18th canto in the epic poem Handsome Nanda, titled "Knowing
sāketakasya bhikṣor ācārya-bhadant'-āśvaghoṣasya mahā-kaver
mahā-vādinaḥ kṛtir iyam //
is the work of a beggar, the respected teacher Aśvaghoṣa of
Saketa, son of the noble Suvarṇākṣī, crafter of epic poetry
and talker of the great talk.